Read about...

• Jacob Frank, to whom sin was holy.

• Adam Weishaupt. the Jesuit priest who founded the
Illuminati on May Day 1776, from which the Communist
Party emerged.

• How Weishaupt's Illuminati and Frank's Frankists
worked hand in hand to destroy religions and governments.

• The connection between the Frankists. Illuminati, ..

Jacobins and the French Revolution that changed society.

• Why Jewish-born Karl Marx was an anti-Semite and
wrote A World Without Jews.

• The 18th Century roots of the Women's Liberation

• How the Illuminati founded artificial Judaism.

• Why the Frankists provided the leadership for the

• Reform and Conservative movements.

• How Judaism was labeled iOrthodoxi in order to
destroy it.

• How the Lubaviteher Rebbe foiled a mass assimilation
conspiracy in Russia.

• The plot to destroy the Torah through the field of Biblical

• Why today's Reform clerics gravitate to Communism,

• Communist causes, and support Black anti-Semitic

• Why the wealthy financed Communist revolutions.

• Why Black civic leader Elma Lewis sued the author for
a half million dollars and lost.

• The true sources for the Frankenstein Monster.

• The significance of mystical designs on the American
dollar bill.





By Rabbi Marvin S. Antelman

An in-depth study of Communist and conspiratorial
group efforts to destroy Jews and Judaism



This book is dedicated to the memory of members of my family
who perished in the Holocaust of the National Socialist Party
of Germany, during World War II. They met their death in the
environs of Sokoran, in the province of Bessarabia, Rumania.
Their names are as follows:

My grandfather, Alexander Ze'ev Zisi Antelman

My grandmother, Golda Antelman

My uncle, Baruch Antelman

My aunt, Sima Antelman

Their 8-year-old daughter, my cousin, Rivka Antelman

My aunt, Rivka (Antelman) Groberman

My uncle, Mayer Groberman

Their 13-year-old son, my cousin, Moshe Groberman
Their 17-year-old daughter, my cousin, Rachel

My 2-year-old cousin, Hadassah Antelman

And a total of 60 of my cousins' uncles, aunts, cousins
and grandparents.




I wish to thank the Jewish Publication Society of America,
Philadelphia, Pa. for permission to reproduce one of Abraham
Geiger's letters to Lillienthal that appeared in Max Weiner's
Abraham Geiger and Liberal Judaism, Copyright 1962, as well
as a sermon from the same book (abbrev. WG).
There are also a number of people whom I would like to thank
for their most generous help to me in gathering information for
the preparation of this book. I am particularly indebted to Mrs.
Maryland Estes of the Beth El Library in Providence for
obtaining some rare books and manuscripts and for her
constant assistance in locating various sources. Thanks are
also due to my student, Rabbi Yitzchak Dubovick of
Providence for obtaining special information on the Chasidim
in Russia during the 19th century. Miss Edith Kermit Roosevelt
of Washington, the granddaughter of President Theodore
Roosevelt, has given me much information on the subversive
activities of the Cult of the All-Seeing Eye and some
interesting connections between them and the American
Jewish Congress, for which I am most indebted. Also I am
grateful to Gordon Hall of Boston for making available some
in- formation in his files on subversives for my perusal.
For their help and suggestions I am grateful to my father, A.
Harry Antelman and my mother, Anna Antelman of Atlantic
City, New Jersey; also to Irwin Katz, Regional Coordinator of
the New England JSL and Allan E. Mallenbaum, National
Chairman of JSL. And most important of all to my wife, Sylvia,
who also designed the cover of this book and without whose
patience and forbearance, this book would have been an




In preparing this volume, I have had to weigh much
historical information and have even had to rewrite some
information when I found contradictory material that could be
better substantiated. Anyone who can correct any particular
information here that he believes to be erroneous is asked to
please call it to my attention. Our understanding of history
increases day by day as new documentary material is
constantly being unearthed that sheds new light or even dis-
credits previous historical sources. This is especially true when
one discovers, as I have, that there seems to be a concerted
attempt to bury in the shadows of history many mysterious
connections and events.

If, dear reader, you should be distressed or frightened when
reading this volume, you should not be, because the
conspiracy to destroy the Jewish religion is completely
undermined in your act of reading this book. The conspiracy
depends on being able to hide its inner workings. But having
read this book, you will be that much more enlightened. This is
what the Torah means by the admonition, "Do not conceal
(Deuteronomy 13:10)." When it comes to those who seduce
people to worship strange gods, that one should not conceal
their actions.

At the end of Volume II, God willing, I shall present a
comprehensive platform on how one can deal with this

While this book primarily addresses itself to the Jewish
experience, I have endeavored to write it for non-Jews as well,
so that they could better appreciate how the Jew is being
falsely presented to them as a left-winger, radical Communist,
or capitalistic conspirator, and begin to realize who the real
conspirators are and who really represents World Jewry today.


Most non-Jews, as members of daughter religions of Judaism,
through this book may be able to appreciate how an attack on
Judaism affects their lives.

I have quoted liberally from many authorities such as
Professor Gershom Scholem, Dr. Arthur Hertzberg, Max
Dimont, and others. However, let the reader not think that by
doing so, the author accepts many of those that he has quoted
as authorities in all matters, for Gershom Scholem is an
agnostic; Professor Jacob Katz, who has written Jews in
Freemasonry, subscribes to Biblical criticism; Max Dimont's
writings reveal antagonism towards religious Jews; and Arthur
Hertzberg in his role as president of the American Jewish
Congress, has been involved in an attempt to undermine the
Jewish religious school system in the United States, and has
attacked the Israeli Rabbinate on the issue of Jewish identity.

In selecting the title of this book, Karl Marx's concept that
religion must be eliminated has been incorporated. The full
text of his remarks was written in German and was as follows:
"Religion is the lament of the oppressed, the soul of a world
that has no soul, the hope of a humanity which has lost all
hope; it is the opiate of the people." This has been reduced in
quotations books to "Religion is the opiate of the people."
Some translate "opium" rather than opiate, but this is a poor
translation of the original German.

Rabbi Marvin S. Antelman
24 Nisan 5734; April 16, 1974





Chapter I. To Eliminate The Opiate 3

II. The New Order 7

III. The Bund Der Gerechten 13

IV. Birth of The Orthodox Nigger 17

V. The Bunds III Fated Russian

Campaign 21

VI. The Fall of Abraham Geiger 27

VII. The Reinstatement of

Abraham Geiger 37


Chapter VIII. The Illuminati and Haskala 47

IX. Mendelssohn's Assimilationist

Heresies 61

X. Dobrushka, The Red Kabbala and

The Jacobins 81

XI. The Frankist Elite 101

XII. The Birth of Biblical Criticism 127







If a Jewish house on 122 Callender Street, Dorchester,
Massachusetts, were not firebombed on the evening of July
11, 1971, then this book would never have been written. It is
because this house was firebombed that the author, as
National Coordinator of the Jewish Survival Legion (JSL), also
called Irgun USA, was sued by Elma Lewis, a militant Black
leader in the Boston area. The letter shown here, was sent by
her lawyer, Lawrence Shubow. Lawrence Shubow and his
former partner, Stephen Morse, were American Jewish
Congress lawyers. Furthermore, Stephen Morse was officially
the assistant to the director of Boston's Jewish Community
Council. Shubow's name is mentioned in U. S. Senate
hearings in conjunction with Communist activities. He is
currently Vice President of the New England Region of the
American Jewish Congress.



Attorneys at Law
16 Court Square
Boston, Massachusetts 02108

ASA S.ALLEN, 1865-1959
OLIVER S. ALLEN, 1910-1969


July 29, 1971

Rabbi Marvin S. Antelrnan
618 Little Building
Boston, Mass. 02116

Dear Rabbi Antelrnan:

I have just been presented with a three-page statement
attributed to the Jewish Survival Legion and issued under your
name which so irresponsibly and falsely libels and damages
Miss Elma Lewis and the programs in which she is involved as
to make immediate legal action unavoidable.

I have been retained to bring a $500,000 suit against the
responsible parties. Before filing the suit I wanted to be
absolutely certain that, insofar as you are concerned, the
document the "Jewish Persecution in Mattapan/Dorchester
was, in fact issued by you or with your authority or by your
organization. Frankly, the possibility occurred to me that it was
crude forgery; it reeks of such malice and misrepresentation.

If I do not hear from you in due course, I will assume you
and your associates do accept responsibility for the document
and are ready to accept any consequences that may arise
from its publication.

Yours very truly,


CC: Elma Lewis


The circumstances of the lawsuit had to do with statements
made by the JSL concerning Elma Lewis's role in the
destruction of Boston's Jewish community during the years
1968 to 1971. They were presented at a meeting hastily called
by Boston's Human Rights Commissioner Emanuel Eaves.
The JSL charged that in 1968 Elma Lewis walked into a one-
and-a-quarter-million-dollar building owned by Congregation
Mishkan Tefila, which was being used as a religious day
school, and threatened to burn the building down with the
children in it unless the building was turned over to her. The
building, housing the Lubavitch Yeshiva, was indeed turned
over to her for one dollar, and it was reported in the papers
that it was a gift from the Boston Jewish community. The JSL
further charged that this created a dangerous precedent, for
eventually there was destruction by Black militants of Jewish
businesses and the proliferation of crime directed against
Jews. In March 1973, the case came to court in Boston
Municipal Court, and we won the case. Witness after witness
came up to testify to the authenticity and veracity of the JSL
statements, further accusing Elma Lewis of teaching hate, in
her newly acquired building, to Black children and instruction
for armed revolution.

The firebombing of the house while the occupants were in it
on Callender Street was only one of a series of incidents that
afflicted Boston's Jewish community. That community was
forcibly expelled over a period of years, from 1968 on.
Synagogues were destroyed, Torahs were burned, and Jews
were beaten mercilessly and robbed. Over 250 Jews were
killed. The total figures of rapes, robberies and murders
exceeded those of the Kishinev pogrom of 1904, and
approximately 60,000 expelled exceeded that of forced exile of
the 16,000 Jews from England on July 18, 1290.

When the scourge of leftist militant Black Naziism
threatened to engulf the Jews of the United States, myself and
other kindred spirits who were veterans of the Zionist



Revisionist Betar and the Irgun, decided to join the Jewish
Defense League. However, at the end of 1970, we left
together as a group over what we felt were basic differences of
philosophy with Rabbi Meir Kahane, though we feel that what
he did for Soviet Jewry will go down in history as one of the
greatest heroic acts of Diaspora Jewry. We formed together
the JSL, which is affiliated with Herut and Betar.

No sooner did Elma Lewis direct her wrath against me, than
I threw the entire apparatus at my disposal through the JSL
and our sister organizations Betar, and Herut USA and Israel
into battle. New England JDL also involved itself. We,
therefore, started to scrutinize thoroughly the background of
Elma Lewis and those Jews who supported her, and who
aided in the destruction of Boston Jewry, and as we did this, a
certain pattern began to emerge, which I was reluctant to
pursue initially, because it appeared to me that we were
heading in the direction of a Joseph McCarthy witch hunt. For
those in the Jewish community who were intimately connected
with Elma Lewis had subversive backgrounds and were
directly or indirectly connected with Communist or Marxist-
Leninist Third World Coalition organizations. We knew, of
course, from our experience in the cities, of how Red Chinese
Maoists had worked together in spawning the Black Panthers
who were openly professing Communist ideology.

However, what we discovered to our chagrin was that most
Jews who had backed the Black Panthers and similar
organizations subscribed to similar philosophies, including,
surprising to us, certain members of the Reform clergy in
Boston, so we proceeded to investigate their backgrounds,
one by one, in extreme detail. For example, we discovered
that on the campus of Brandeis University, the Reform Hillel
chaplain, Albert Axelrad, was pro-Black Panther and published
supporting articles saying one could be anti-Zionist without
being anti-Semitic; that Roland Gittelsohn of the Reform
Temple Israel had aligned himself with Communist causes


throughout his life; that a certain clergyman Judea Miller, in a
Reform congregation in Maiden, Mass., fully supported Elma
Lewis and the local Malcolm X Foundation.

As a case in point of our thorough investigation, we found
Roland Gittelsohn to be affiliated with several Communist front
organizations, such as the American Congress for Peace and
Democracy, and the Mid-Century Conference for Peace, one
of which was an affiliate of the American League for Peace
and Democracy, which was on the Attorney General's list of
the United States as a subversive Communist organization.
Subsequent to that, he became affiliated with the National
Committee to Repeal the McCarran Act, which was labeled
subversive. It is, therefore, no wonder that he then joined the
National Committee to Abolish the Plouse of Un-American
Activities In 1958 Gittelsohn's name appeared in the
Communist Worker as a signer of a statement calling for Red
China's admission to the United Nations. Red China today has
an El Fatah training camp in Canton, China, and from their
offices emerges throughout the world virulent propaganda
against the State of Israel.

In 1960, he became an adviser to the Congress of Racial
Equality, which supported much of the Black anti-Semitic
activity in the United States. In 1961, he signed a clemency
petition for imprisoned Communists Frank Wilkinson and Carl
Braden. In 1964, he joined a group of Communists sponsoring
a memorial tribute to the Communist W. E. B. DuBois, and
there was much, much more.

Dossiers were collected and the information was siphoned
into Bet Jabotinsky in Israel, the seat of the Herut Party, which
formed Gachal and is now the nucleus of the Likud coalition. I
decided that based on what Plebrew University Jewish
mysticism Professor Gershom Scholem had said about the
connection between the radical 17th century Sabbatian move-
ment, and the 18th century Frankists connections with the
Reform and Conservative movements, and the Jacobins, that



this idea should be pursued. The thesis was that there exists a
connection between the Reform and Conservative movements
and Communism. The thesis was pursued and was found not
only to be valid, but it appeared that there was a conspiracy in
history to hide this relationship. The more obstacles that I
found in my path, the more determined I was to dig and to
continue digging to unwind the entire puzzle.

Interestingly enough, I had been well schooled in my days
at Yeshiva University in the history of the Reform and
Conservative movements and the Haskala, the Frankists and
the Sabbatians, and I was privileged to have studied under
great masters such as the late Professor Pinchos Churgin,
founder of Bar Man University in Israel; Professor Sidney B.
Hoenig, and the eminent historian of American-Jewish history,
Professor Hyman B. Grinstein. Much of this previous
knowledge began to fall into a new perspective, and so I
began to write this book with a lesson in mind of what the
Torah calls ubiarta hara mikirbecha: "Thou shalt blot out the
evil from within thy midst."

The Rabbis had warned in vain, with the inception of these
movements, against what they had termed secularistic
nihilism, or a so-called Jewish escape from Judaism. They
would beseech the Almighty in their prayers to have
compassion on well-meaning and sincere people of Israel who
had strayed into these movements and who conscientiously
believed that in their affiliation they belonged to an authentic
branch of Judaism.

Judaism has no branches. There is one Torah and one
God, and our Torah teaches that each Jew on his Day of
Judgment, regardless of affiliation will be individually asked to
give an accounting of himself.

The strong feelings of the great Rabbis of the 19th and 20th
centuries for their straying compatriots could not prevent the
Holocaust that engulfed Europe in World War II, and which
resulted in the extermination of nearly six million Jews. The


ovens of Auschwitz and Dachau did not discriminate between
Orthodox, Conservative and Reform Jews; Nazi racist theories
did not allow even those descendants of Jews who converted
to Christianity generations earlier to escape.

In retrospect, it appears as if there was a polarization
process that caused certain population segments of Europe to
develop an antagonism towards the Jew, whom they pictured
as a Communist, because so it seemed at the time. The only
Jews they heard about or read about in the papers were Com-
munists-the facts notwithstanding that Judaism and
Communism are mutually exclusive, and that one cannot have
dual loyalty. Allegiance to one system demands treason to the
other. Simultaneously, Jews were depicted to other population
segments as selfish capitalists. And so the protestations of the
Jewish masses against their identification with radical causes
appears to have fallen on deaf ears, so too against their
alleged capitalistic inclinations.

And so we find, tragically enough, that on the American
scene the average loyal, law-abiding American Blacks have
been cursed with self-appointed leaders who spout virulent
Marxist rhetoric, and whom the White population of this
country believe to be true representatives and spokesmen for
grass-roots Blacks. If this situation is allowed to persist,
enough hatred by a White backlash could lead to dire con-
sequences, and the possible extermination of Blacks in this
country. Furthermore, these same subversive elements have
fanned the fires of hatred between Jewish and Black groups to
such an extent that many Jews today are beginning to
erroneously regard most Blacks as anti-Semites because of
constant confrontation between a militant Marxist Black
minority and Jewish community interests.

Perhaps the most distressing aspect of this study is that
there may have been a grain of truth in what the historian Salo
W. Baron has rightly labeled "the most influential forgery of the
20th century", the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. The



Protocols were published in 1903 under the direction of Czar
Nicholas II, for which he dispensed the staggering sum of thir-
teen million rubles, and encouraged a monk named Nilus to
prepare it. The Protocols alleged that there was a Jewish
world conspiracy. The Czar was a virulent anti-Semite, but
may have published the Protocols because he had a personal
axe to grind with the Schiffs, the Warburgs and the Rothschild
banking dynasties, who were already planning a revolution in
Russia. Jacob Schiff was giving immense financial aid to the
Japanese against the Russians. He was decorated by the
Mikado after the Russo-Japanese War. The question should
be raised of Schiff, if he was such a loyal Jew, "why did he
finance the Japanese who caused the death of thousands of
Jewish men who were used as cannon fodder for the Czar?"
Ironically, the Czar only hurt his cause, and he allowed his
blind, savage hatred for the Jews to play into the hands of his
enemies, because now those committed to the concept of a
conspiracy to undermine world governments and religions
could immediately be labeled as bigots and could be
discredited. The truth of the matter was, as this book will point
out, that there was a conspiracy, but it was neither Jewish, nor
Catholic nor Masonic. It involved people of all types of
religious and national backgrounds. Side by side with the
Schiffs, Warburgs and Rothschilds were the Morgans and the
Rockefellers. With Trotsky were Lenin and Stalin.

People who held views similar to the Czar were:
Charles Maurras, French journalist and politician and
spokesman of the French Royalist Party, who wrote:

"There exists a great maritime power: it is Anglo-Saxon and
Protestant and hence twice barbarian. There exists a great
military Power: it is German, Protestant, twice barbarian.
There exists a great financial power: it is cosmopolite and
Jewish, that is both barbarian and anarchist."

Henry Ford, who wrote The International Jew, which was a
worked-over translation of the Protocols.



Count Lamsdorf, who suggested in 1905-1906 to Emperor
William II a Russian-German alliance to combat the
international Jew and Freemason.

All these people were stupid, because they were hate-
ridden. If they sincerely believed in a conspiracy to combat the
International Jew and the International Freemason, they only
aided it by their actions. Indeed, it is possible, and it could
come out some day, that some of these people who promoted
such rhetoric were part of the Conspiracy themselves. For
example, it is known that Israel Jacobson, one of the founders
of the Reform movement (see Chapter XI), was labeled
"Jacobin, son of Israel," by none other than Goethe, who was
a member of the Illuminati, a conspiratorial organization
dedicated to overthrowing all governments and religions. By
doing this, Goethe may have helped hide the fact that Israel
Jacobson was an agent of the Illuminati, working for the Duke
of Brunswick. His remarks could serve to discredit any one
who would suggest that there was a conspiracy to overthrow
governments. They could immediately be labeled as
unenlightened bigots.







What nation is there so great that has laws and perfect rules
as this Torah, which I place before you this day?

(Deuteronomy 4:8)

Religion is the opiate of the people.

(Karl Marx, Introduction to
Critique of the Hegelian
Philosophy of Right, (1 844)).

Contrary to popular opinion Karl Marx did not originate the
Communist Manifesto. He was paid for his services by the
League of the Just, which was known in its country of origin,
Germany, as the Bund der Gerechten. 1

The Bund, which existed as a secret society, was later to
become known as the International Communist Party.

The actual origin of this Bund seems to be lost in obscurity,
but it is believed by many political scientists to have been
influenced largely by another secret organization, the
Illuminati, 2 the brain child of a Bavarian intellectual named
Adam Weishaupt, who is believed to have been an ex-Jesuit.
The Illuminati was founded on May 1, 1776, and it is for this
reason that many scholars believe that May Day has achieved
prominent status in Marxist Leninist organizations and other
Socialist Communist coalition groups throughout the world.
When Weishaupt first conceived of a new social order in the
world, he was guided by the model of The Republic by Plato



(428-347 B.C.E.). 3 Weishaupt was professor of Canon Law in
Ingolstadt, Bavaria. The Illuminati was known in Germany as
the Perfektibilisten and had this parallel with Plato's Republic.
Just as Plato provided for three classes of people in his
Republic, so too, did the Illuminati. Its highest class was a
mystery class, which comprised grades of membership
consisting of Priest, Regent, Magus and King. 4 They were like
Plato's rulers. One thing is certain, when Weishaupt died in
1830, the roots of the Communist Party were well established.
The party was secretly dominated by some of the most
prominent men in German society, and its most influential
chapters extended into France and Belgium.

To understand Communism, it is well to study Plato's
Republic. Plato's three classes consist of ruling, working and
military. Plato called for the complete elimination of marriage
and the family, so that all women would belong to all men, and
all men would belong to all women. Children born from
promiscuous unions would be raised anonymously by the
State. The State would eliminate all defectives. Actually Plato's
Republic is nothing more than a crystallization of the worst
aspects of Hellenism. Judaism had victoriously fought
Hellenism in a life and death struggle within 200 years of
Plato's death. It was in the battles of the Maccabees that Jews
fought for their convictions of basic morality as well as for their
freedom of religion.

In the modern Communist party the three classes still exist.
However, the general public tends to think of Communism as
an order catering to the working classes, and do not realize
that very powerful wealthy men living in free societies of the
world today are its Kings and Priests. They secretly
manipulate and control most Communist governments and
Marxist-Leninist activities throughout the world.

These powerful people conceive of themselves as
masterminds and rulers of a new world order, which they
believe will eventually succeed and supersede all



governments. A monument existing in the free world erected to
this concept exists in the lobby of the scandalously abandoned
Harry S. Truman Peace Institute of the Hebrew University on
Mt. Scopus in Jerusalem. It is here in the lobby that a
mysterious painting hangs, which stumps spectators, and from
which three strands of what appears to be hair, emanate from
an illuminating background and unite to form one bond. This
represents the three classes. If one goes out to the front of the
building one will find inscribed on a monument prominent
names that have been linked through a work written by a
prominent leftist intellectual historian, Carroll Quigley. It is
Quigley's thesis that he should reveal the names of the inner
Communist circle today (for which he was seriously
condemned by them), because Quigley felt that the
Communist revolution has come so far that even the revelation
of its secret leaders would have no harm on its aims and
purposes. This abandoned Peace Institute in Jerusalem is a
manifestation of the highest so-called Jewish echelons of
world Communism. What we shall demonstrate is that these
born Jews and their predecessors have attempted to destroy
the basic universal morality that Judaism holds sacred, as well
as its religious practices. It was their antecedents who laid a
vicious foundation to annihilate Judaism, and they are
continuing the process today.





We shall find all precious wealth. We shall fill our houses with
spoil. Cast in thy lot among us; let us have one purse.

(Proverbs 1:13, 14).

And what will a man such as he is be likely to do under such
circumstances, especially if he be a citizen of a great city, rich
and noble, and a tall proper youth, will he not be full of
pointless aspirations, and fancy himself able to manage the
affairs of Hellenes and of barbarians, and having got such
notions in his head, will he not dilate and elevate himself in the
fullness of vain pomp and senseless pride?

(Plato's Republic VI, 494).

Again, following the political radicalism of Plato, the new
social order schemed by masterminds could only be realized
by three types of revolution.

1. Economic

2. Political

3. Religious

So it was that, at the clandestine meetings of the Bund der
Gerechten, which took place in the early part of the 19th
Century, that schemes were effectuated for economic, political
and religious revolutions. It was Karl Marx who was only
expressing and articulating Communism's Hellenistic ideology
when he said that, "religion is the opiate of the people." The
world has seen, and has come to appreciate, what political



and economic revolution entails, as in the Bolshevik revolution,
the People's Republic of China, Castro's Cuba and in
Allende's Marxist confiscation of industry by the State in Chile.
The world, however, is not too familiar with the religious
revolution, and this has been most carefully guarded by the
Communist hierarchy. It is among our objectives to focus on
the religious revolution, and especially the aspects of this
religious revolution with regard to Judaism. I welcome
analogous studies of other faiths.

The original inner circle of the Bund der Gerechten
consisted of born Catholics, Protestants and Jews, and those
representatives of respective subdivisions formulated schemes
for the ultimate destruction of their faiths. The heretical
Catholics laid plans which they felt could take a century or
more for the ultimate destruction of the church; the apostate
Jews for the ultimate destruction of the Jewish religion.

Since the Jewish religion was the mother of two great
Western religions Christianity and the Muslim faith, Judaism
naturally became a primary target. The brilliant Communist
leaders knew and perceived that it was Judaism that still
infused and permeated a spirituality into those other religions,
even though the religion was despised by many of the leaders
of the daughter religions.

So it should not seem strange that compulsive hatred for
the Jewish religion was manifested throughout the rise of
world Communism. It was Karl Marx (1818-1883) who was
born Jewish and whose family converted to Christianity when
he was six, who wrote a book, A World Without Jews. Karl
Marx helped promote anti-Semitism in the United States. In his
reports from Europe for Horace Greeley's New York Tribune,
Marx wrote, "Thus we find every tyrant backed by a Jew." In
1 856 Karl Marx wrote

"Thus do these loans which are a curse to the people, a ruin to

the government become a blessing to the house of Judah.



This Jewish organization of loan mongers is as dangerous to

the people as the aristocratic organization of landowners ." 5

Congressman Gordon Scherer on the House Committee of
Un-American Activities was convinced from the testimony of
many people, including prominent Jews, that the Communist
Party was anti-Semitic, and is as anti-Semitic as Hitler ever
was. Communism was, of course, committed to atheism and
Judaism is inexorably committed to monotheism, the root of
religious beliefs of the Western world today. It is also
interesting to note that Hitler was in fact a National Socialist, in
contradistinction to a Communist, who is an International
Socialist. Ideologically the two philosophies are identical
except that the Nazi fascist type of dictatorship could care less
about International Socialists. Its own Germany-"Deutschland
Uber Alles" (Germany above all) — prevailing its thought and
action. It was Hitler's political platform that appealed to the
German working classes that spoke of socializing industry and
retail business, but nevertheless was backed by big wealthy
industrialists such as Krupp.

In addition to the conscious and subconscious hatred of the
Jew for his religious beliefs and practices, the Jew is also
despised for his entrepreneurship and rugged individualism.
This hatred for rugged individualism is not necessarily
confined to the Jews, for Stalin exterminated several million
Kulaks who professed a unique rugged individualism, which
was manifested, in a closely-knit agrarian subculture within the
Soviet Union.

Also the religious Jewish individual tenaciously clings to the
concepts and practices that reflect the sanctity of human life.
In the Communist State, the State is supreme and the
importance of family and property rights and even human life
are subservient to the State. Thus the concept that the Divine
presence in man, which reflects itself in the behavior pattern of
the religious Jew, was considered a threat to the State



because next to these values the State appeared in sharp
contrast as being demeaning and barbaric.

From the time of Abraham, Jews were committed to
preserve what was known as the "Seven Commandments of
The Sons of Noah," 6 which includes prohibitions against
homicide (including abortion and euthanasia), incestuous
sexual relations, theft, blasphemy and idolatry, and demands
that governments pass laws such as providing for Capital
Punishment to uphold these laws. Laws in Hebrew are called
dinim, which are so linked with government that the Hebrew
word for government is medina, which literally means "derived
from law".

The antithesis of all this is the atheistic Communist state,
which murders and curtails free religious expression among its
citizens, encourages sexual depravity and immorality in its
societies, and attracts in its revolutionary onset many
followers, because it offers them group sanctification of illicit
sexual relationships such as adultery and homosexuality. Thus
there is not one single Communist government in the world in
which religion can be practiced freely without interference.
This is a consequence of believing religion to be the opiate of
the people, which according to Marx's Manifesto, logically calls
for the elimination of the opiate.






1. Thou shalt not engage in idol worship.

2. Thou shalt not blaspheme God.

3. Thou shalt not shed innocent blood of any human being
nor fetus nor ailing person who has a limited time to live.

4. Thou shalt not engage in bestial, incestuous, adulterous
or homosexual relations nor commit the act of rape.

5. Thou shalt not steal.

6. Thou shalt establish laws and courts of law to administer
these laws, including the death penalty for those who kill,
administered only if there is one testifying eyewitness.

7. Thou shalt not be cruel to animals.




Title page from a French Protocols edition.
(Courtesy The Weiner Library, London)




Why was Israel sent to Egypt into slavery? Rabbi Chanina
said, "It was measure for measure," for before the Children of
Israel went to Egypt, we find that the Sons of Leah and Rachel
disliked the sons of Bilha and Zilpa and called them "children
of slaves," since Bilha and Zilpa were hand maidens of Leah
and Rachel ... and God said, "I shall bring all of them down to
Egypt and they will all become slaves, and when they are
redeemed and celebrate the Seder, they will say, "we were all
slaves unto Pharaoh in Egypt."

(Otzar Midrashim, p. 488)

Groundless hatred is as wicked as idolatry, adultery and
murder combined.

(Yoma, 9b)

We spoke of the formative days of the Bund when it set out
its aims and purposes and its particular goal of destroying
religion. It may be difficult to conceive of how a professed Jew
or Catholic would seek to destroy his own religion. However,
one should consider that the Bunds inner circle consisted of
unusually gifted intellectuals who were members of a specific
religion by birth only, and super wealthy individuals whose
boundless ambitions for power had caused them to become
unscrupulous. Their lust for power was of such great
dimensions that it could cause any loyalties that they may
have harbored for their own religious orders to become
ancillary to the objectives of the Bund. It suited these people



both socially and by temperament to retain a facade of
religious formalism, which did not prevent them from going
about their demonic business of destroying religion method-
ically; Catholic traitors among them playing out their roles of
undermining the authority of the Church and its ultimate
destruction, and turncoat Jews among them going about their
assigned tasks of undermining and destroying the authority of

The masterminds of the Bund, as was mentioned before,
were a handful of super-rich, but it is indeed bitterly ironic that
the concept of a world conspiracy has been abused by anti-
Semitic propaganda, as in the infamous Protocols of the
Elders of Zion, claiming that international Jews seek world

The best reference to these masterminds is Quigley's book,
which he published in 1966 (by Collier Macmillan) entitled
Tragedy and Hope. In choosing the title of his book, Quigley
considered those who opposed the Communist revolution as
the tragedy. A tragedy because these people are doomed. The
hope designated those who are committed to world Com-
munism. Quigley believes that the little people cannot turn
back the tide of this revolution, and he also believes that it is
high time that the "great men" were acknowledged for their
accomplishments. 7 What makes Quigley quite credible is that
he is a leftist.

Among the leaders of world Communism acclaimed by
Quigley are the Rockefellers and Morgans, as well as those
Jews who are of special interest to us here-the Schiffs,
Warburgs and most of the Rothschilds. Jacob Schiff is credited
with giving $20 million to the Bolshevik revolution. A year after
his death, the Bolsheviks deposited over 600 million rubles to
Schiffs banking firm, Kuhn and Loeb. It was Jacob Schiff and
his family who played a prominent role in developing the
Reform and Conservative apostate Jewish movements, and
who aided them at critical stages of their development in



putting into action the demonic master plan to undermine all
world religions. Fragmentation, and divide and conquer tactics
were the order of the day.

If Jews could be fragmentized and irreversibly split, success
in implementing the religious revolution would be achieved.
They conceived the idea of developing their own network of
rabbinical seminaries to ordain their own fraudulent rabbis.
The pretentiousness of this scheme was unbelievable.
Flowever, with the power that these super-rich held, and their
ability to apply it at all levels of German society, from the
media to the political arena, its success was guaranteed in

Abraham Geiger (May 24, 1810-October 23, 1874) was the
man the Bund chose to be their primary personality to
implement the Reform Movement. Geiger was a graduate of
Bonn and Heidelberg. On November 21, 1832, he became
Rabbi in Wiesbaden. On May 6, 1833, he was engaged to be
married to Emily Oppenheim. The wedding took place on
July 1,1840. They were deeply in love then, and all their
married life, despite the fact that their marriage was conceived
under sinister circumstances. One may ask why Geiger was
engaged to Emily for as long a period as seven years, 9 and the
answer is that the Oppenheim-Geiger marriage was contrived
by the super rich. Emily was a granddaughter of Gumpel
Oppenheim, who was in the inner circle of the Bund, and the
sister of Heinrich Bernard Oppenheim (1819-1880). It was this
Oppenheim who was one of the masterminds of the 1848
Communist revolution in Germany.

Geiger was on trial. Fie was given seven years to formulate
an effective theology of Reform Judaism. Fie did his work well,
and before he got married, he had succeeded in founding a
radical society for Jewish theology in Germany, as well as
setting up a dynamic organizational structure for Reform
Judaism (1835), and convening the first formalized conference
of Reform rabbis (1837). Due largely to Geiger, the Reform



Movement became by 1850 the dominant Jewish schism in
Germany. 10 Having become a smashing success, he captured
the loyalty of the majority of Jews born there, although the
status of such Jews from God's Torah perspective was now in
danger. Since Geiger continued to perform so well, he was
rewarded again by having a marriage arranged between his
nephew and a Schiff girl. 11

Shortly before the Communist revolution of 1848 in
Germany, the Jewish-directed activities of the Bund began to
be more pronounced and more complex. The new Reform
movement was attracting new converts daily. The calculating
callousness of the Bund for human beings and human
emotions was further manifested by the way thousands of lives
were manipulated. People who were largely attracted to
Reform accepted the movement at face value on what they
considered to be its intrinsic worth or merits. Little did they
realize that their acceptance of this heresy would cause their
descendants to be totally lost to Judaism. Little did they also
realize that they were being played for fools, and that lives
were being toyed with and used by power hungry men on the
altars of ambition, success and politics. The Bund conceived
of the ultimate plans for the secularization and destruction of
Judaism. If the movements which they set up were sincerely
interested in preserving Judaism and acting as stop gaps as
they claimed, they would have long ago tunneled and
educated the masses with their vast resources into a religious
way of life in which the Torah is the central authority and the
binding law.





The hatred of barbaric Jews towards the Rabbinate exceeds
the hatred of anti-Semitic Gentiles towards the Jewish people.

(Babylonian Talmud, Pesachim 49b)

The term "orthodox" was first applied to the Jews by Abraham
Furtado (1756-1816) in connection with the Sanhedrin
conferred by Napoleon. Shortly after, the birth of Reform
Judaism emphasized the use of the term "orthodox", applied
first to Judaism as found in the Bible, Talmud, Codes and
Responsa; secondly to Jews who accept its authority and who
endeavor to obey its behests. The designation "orthodox",
moreover, obscures the fact that what is so called, is in reality
Judaism proper.

(Rabbi Leo Jung, Essentials of
Judaism, Union of Orthodox
Jewish Congregations of
America, (1937) p. 4)

A characteristic of the divide and conquer psychology of the
Communist movement has been its ability to instigate
divisiveness among groups. Over the years it has fomented
revolution by accentuating differences between Blacks and
Whites, Asiatics and Occidentals, youth and elders, landlords
and tenants, Christians and Jews, Moslems and Christians
and with the advent of Women's Lib between men and
women, even husband and wife. One tactic that the Reform
movement desired to implement was to divide Jews. Thus the



authentic Jew who had practiced his Judaism over the
centuries, despite minor differences in outer forms of worship
or local customs as differentiates Sephardic, Spanish-
Portuguese elements from the Ashkenazic and Chasidic
communities, was now destined to be relegated to the role of
member of a reactionary sect called Orthodoxy. The term
Orthodox was to be used as a bigoted derogatory term in the
same manner that a white bigot would employ the term nigger.
This was in the best tradition of Marx and his Bund sponsors.
It should be noted that Marx used the term nigger to indeed
degrade all Jews when he published another one of his anti-
Semitic diatribes entitled The Jewish Nigger. 12

Accordingly the term Orthodox came to be utilized in
common parlance as synonymous with a backward, non-
progressive, unsophisticated and reactionary Jew. Geiger was
not alone in setting up so-called enlightened scholarly circles.
A scheme was developed in these circles to talk up the branch
concept through a nucleus of scholars. A rationale and an
impetus were developed for the acceptance of a branch
concept in Judaism. Judaism, which had not had branches,
was to be praised for its diversity. Anyone who spoke of a
united Judaism was to be sneered at as an ignoramus who
failed to recognize that "Judaism is not monolithic."

We will find later how Geiger himself was to be crucified by
this concept when the Bund designed in 1854 to create a
Conservative Movement among Jews.

Geiger sought to resurrect the conflict of the Sadducees
and Pharisees through his scholarly studies of their historical
period. His studies were first rate, but through them he wanted
to plant the idea very subtly in people's minds that branch and
schism were not new to Judaism.

In academic circles his masterful studies were accepted
with acclaim. When filtered down to the masses his studies
and those of his contemporaries were translated into a glib
justification for the so-called branches of Judaism.



Geiger and his colleagues were, of course, notoriously
intellectually dishonest. What they failed to tell the masses
was that, although there had existed before in Jewish history
such diverse groups as the Sadducees, Pharisees,
Rabbanites, and Karaites, that Judaism had survived via the
Pharisees and Rabbanites and that even their opponents
never dared question the basic validity of the concept of Torah
min hashamaim-that the Torah was a divinely revealed

Both Sadducee and Karaite had challenged the derivation
of specific laws in Judaism. Their dissension, though
intolerable to Judaism and Torah values, questioned
fundamental interpretation of the Torah, but never cast doubts
on its Divinely revealed origin. These schisms were not
branches of Judaism. Both so-called Reform and Conservative
Judaism are not branches of Judaism, but stand outside its
pale because both hold that God did not write the Torah, but
rather that men created it. Conservative differed from Reform
in one respect: that since Reform had accepted the notion that
the Torah was man made and it could reject all of Torah Law
with impunity, only retaining the universal values of Judaism,
the Conservatives felt that much of the ceremonial, ritual and
Halakhic norms of Judaism should be conserved, 13 not
because the Torah was divinely revealed, but because these
things were culturally important and gave Judaism a national
character. Judaism could never tolerate even lesser
dissensions on the scale of the Karaites and Sadducees, and
could never make peace with these movements.

The process of going from authentic Judaism to the stage
of complete rejection of the Divine origin of the Torah was not
instantaneous. The first Reform service (1807) conducted by
Illuminati Bundist Israel Jacobson introduced one slight
change in the ritual. It had translated the Yikum Purkan prayer
of the Sabbath Musaf service from Aramaic to German. 14 Re-
form gradually introduced other deviations into the service,



such as instrumental music on July 17, 1810. However, as late
as the 1930's, German Reform had never psychologically
accepted the mixing of the sexes in its worship. Men and
women continued to have separate sections in European
Reform temples though they blasphemously believed that
men, not God, composed the Torah, but even this radical idea
was not a sudden one. It was predicated on basic policies that
seem to be initially innocuous as well as the Declaration of
Principles (1843) of the Verein der Reform Freunde of
Frankfurt, Frankfurt's Reform Society. The principles read as
follows: 15

1. We recognize the possibility of unlimited development in
the Mosaic religion.

2. The collection of controversies, dissertations and
prescriptions commonly designated by the name
Talmud, possesses for us no authority from either
dogmatic or religious considerations.

The initial thrust was philosophically Karaitic, an attack on
the Talmud. The intermediate stage was complete apostasy,
an attack on the Torah. However, the final state is even worse
because although the original Reformers embraced universal
ethics of the Noahide laws, it has followers today who are now
calling for abolition of capital punishment in our society, who
endorse abortion, who seek to justify the tolerance of criminal
elements, who approve of adultery and illicit sexual relations,
and who have even incorporated homosexual congregations
into their structure, and find praise for "atheistic" rabbis. And in
their schemes (after the fashion of Reform clergymen Klausner
and Eisendrath), some have even found room for Jesus in the
Jewish scheme of things.




It came to pass that when Moses did lift up his hand, Israel
prevailed ... and Joshua overwhelmed the people of Amalek
with the sword ... The Lord will be at war with Amalek
throughout the ages.

(Exodus 17:11, 13, 16)

Once Abraham Geiger had succeeded in forming basic
organizational structures, Reform was now ready for
expansion into other areas. The Bund decided to export its
heresies to Russia, and selected Dr. Max Lillienthal (1814-
1882) for the job. Lillienthal was partially successful. In 1840,
he succeeded in opening a Jewish school where he could
implant the seeds of destruction against Judaism. In
December 1841, he laid the groundwork for government spon-
sored Jewish secular schools in Russia. However, Lillienthal
was not successful because he had never reckoned with the
power of the great Lubavitcher Chasidic Rabbi who lived in
Russia at that time, called the Tzemach Tzedek. It was he who
completely dissipated these efforts and taught the
Communists a lesson that they never forgot, so much so, that
generations later, after the revolution, they imprisoned this
man's descendant, known as the Lubavitcher Rebbe of
Russia, threatened to kill him, and threw him down a flight of



An excellent account of the 19th Century events is to be
found in The Tzemach Tzedek and The Haskala Movement,
from which we have profusely drawn. It was furthermore this
stunning defeat that heightened extreme disdain for Russian
Jews, which was manifested in many ways by Jacob Schiff. 16
In 1838, Dr. Lillienthal came to Riga to assume the leadership
of a special school designed to destroy Judaism, which
opened its doors in January 1840. The Bund exercised its
master plan through a committee consisting of the Reform
functionaries, Phillipsohn, Homberg, Mannheimer and
Auerbach. 17

Lillienthal was born in Munich and graduated from the
University of Munich. To get an idea of how ruthless the
committee was, let us examine just one member, Homberg.
He attempted to have a tax imposed in Germany in 1795 on
the Sabbath and holiday candles used by the Jews. He was a
man of rotten moral character, and was convicted of
misappropriation of funds in 1801. In 1810, he published a
booklet entitled Who Is Culturally Fit for Marriage? in which he
tried to discredit religious Jews as not being fit for marriage. 18
From 1814-1841 Homberg served under Franz I as inspector
of Jewish schools in Bohemia, where he succeeded in
destroying the Jewish parochial school system.

When Lillienthal arrived in Riga much, groundwork had
already been laid by Bund controlled agents in Russia.
Lillienthal ingratiated himself with the then Prince Lichtenberg
of Russia, who was the prominent son-in-law of the anti-
Semitic Czar Nicholas I, who was notorious for his compulsory
conscription of Jewish children into the Russian army, and
attempts for their forced conversion to Christianity.

Prince Lichtenberg could be considered an initial forerunner
in the intrigues in government preceding the Bolshevik
revolution. He was a free thinker, considered a heretic by the
Vatican, and was cause for the King of Bavaria to be censured
by them for not concerning himself with his younger brother's



conduct. By marriage he became the Czar's son-in-law, whose
fondness for him turned into embitterment when he learned of
Lichtenberg's atheism. Accordingly Count Bidlov, head of the
third section of the Czar's secret police, kept him under
constant surveillance. Lillienthal arrived with a letter of
introduction from the King of Bavaria . 19 The Bund held strong
sway over the King of Bavaria and Ullienthal's influence in
Russia was to be well established because of these ties.
However, because of Lichtenberg's surveillance 20 by the
secret police, Lillienthal was destined to be a suspect for
political subversion. Not only did the secret police have their
eyes on Lillienthal, but unknown to him, all of his movements
were carefully watched by the Tzemach Tzedek, whose
intelligence network was so thorough and complete that it
could easily compete with our own CIA and FBI.

Lillienthal presented a plan that originated from a Bund
front, an "enlightenment society" in Germany, which had a
keen sense of the importance of media, education and
religious dissemination. The plan that he submitted called for
closing publishing houses, destroying all existing harmful
literature, and establishing schools to teach the Russian
language, and making attendance mandatory for Jews . 21 He
also began to engage himself in malice and character as-
sassination, and decided to use his influence to undermine the
Rabbis, and especially the Tzemach Tzedek. Thus Lillienthal
asserted that the Tzemach Tzedek was a persecutor of
culture, and accused him of sending special emissaries to
prevent Jewish youths from fulfilling their duties as citizens in
serving in the military, and publishing and distributing Chasidic
books that are rife with his teachings of separatism.

Dr. Lillienthal and his cohorts in Russia made concerted
attacks against the Torah and Judaism. Agents of the society
were dispatched to spy on the Tzemach Tzedek. They also
instigated the writing of scores of denunciatory letters, which
arrived daily to the Ministry of Interior, Culture and the Secret



Police, which spoke against Jewish religious leaders and key
merchants, villagers or innkeepers whose morals or integrity
they could not compromise. These letters charged rebellion,
contempt for Christianity, misappropriation of taxes, violation
of the restricted areas, which only Jews may inhabit,
smuggling, bribery and usury . 22

On one occasion, Lillienthal attempted to impress Count
Uvarov, the Minister of Culture. He stated that the Rabbis
condone all sorts of unethical iniquities with Gentiles, including
usury and misrepresentation. In addition, he accused the
Rabbis of preaching a policy of separatism from the good
Gentile neighborhoods, and he claimed that the most
notorious offender was the saintly Tzemach Tzedek . 23

Lillienthal continued to gather support and enlist people
who were either dedicated to the Communist ideal or had been
swayed by his nihilistic rhetoric. One such person thus
influenced was an intellectual of high reputation whose name
was M. A. Gunsburg. Unfortunately for Lillienthal, Gunsburg
was an intellectually honest person. He undertook a six
months journey to study the Chasidic Jews in their own com-
munities. As a result of Gunsburg's investigation he was
convinced that the Rabbis were men of fine character and
unusual intellect. He also noted that the laymen were mostly
merchants and artisans who crowded the synagogues three
times a day and all studied the Torah, Mishna, Talmud and
Jewish Law on their own level. He found piety and virtue mani-
fested everywhere he went. He came to the conclusion that
"Their respect and awe of the Rabbi are rooted in the depths
of their souls."

At a special meeting of Maskilim (seekers of enlightenment)
of the Vilna chapter, Dr. Lillienthal was expecting great things,
but when he called upon Gunsburg, the Secretary of the
Lithuanian Maskilim, to give his report on the Chasidim, he
was quite depressed. Gunsburg, during his trips had come to
the conclusion that his German mentors were full of



misinformation, both on the numerical strength of the
Chasidim, who comprised 3/4 of the Jewish people in Russia,
and qualitatively, and particularly the influence of the Tzemach
Tzedek and his colleagues.

During this meeting, Dr. Lillienthal laid out plans to bring
250 "qualified" teachers, trained and licensed by the Germans,
to staff his new schools. He also outlined plans to sabotage
the Tzemach Tzedek, which included accusing him of
collecting funds for a foreign power, 24 Turkey, for the purpose
of rebellion, since the Turks were in charge in Israel, and the
Rabbi was constantly sending funds there to support his
charitable institutions.

All the years that Lillienthal was in Russia, pressure from
above-the government-and pressure from below through his
educators and enlightenment societies continued to be applied
to the Jewish communities to assimilate. In 1844, the Czar had
honored Lillienthal with a certificate of honorary citizenship.
Lillienthal even succeeded in opening a phony rabbinical semi-
nary in Vilna, which was dedicated in 1847 after Lillienthal left
Russia. All during this period, the Czar was applying further
pressure of assimilating Jews with his forced conscription law,
so that during 1842-1843, 22,000 Jews had been converted to
Christianity and between 1846-1854, 7,000 were baptized. 25
However, things got worse, and finally came to a head.

On May 6, 1843, the first meeting of a government
commission 26 aimed at finalizing Jewish assimilation was
convened. The Tzemach Tzedek stood strongly in opposition
to what the conspirators wanted to do. The gauntlet was
thrown on the table when he stated that if it was the
government intention and that of the Maskilim to carry out their
plan, that he and his colleagues 27 were prepared to suffer
death rather than to transgress. Uvarov, who was chairman of
the commission, placed the Rabbi under house arrest and
threatened him with harsh punishment for contempt. During
the period of the Commission of 1843, which lasted from May



6 to August 27, the Tzemach Tzedek was under house arrest
no less than 22 times for periods of one, two or three days,
which added to the duration of the commission. Seeing that it
was impossible to bamboozle the Jewish leadership, Lillienthal
suffered the worst defeat of his career in Russia. 28

As these events were unfolding, Lillienthal's name had
already become a household name for atheist. 29 After atheist
he had become known as the "filthy German apostate." 30 In
religious circles throughout Russia, Lillienthal's name was one
of derision. He was hated by the masses. When Lillienthal
realized that his time was up, on the day that the Tzemach
Tzedek stood up so strongly against him; he sent a letter
immediately to Abraham Geiger in Germany invoking him to
come to Russia to save the ship from sinking. Lillienthal had
already made arrangements with Uvarov to have Geiger
assume a prestigious position. 31





The Lord lifteth up the meek; he casteth the wicked down to
the ground.

(Psalms 147:6)

Upon receiving the communication from comrade Lillienthal,
Geiger committed the unforgivable sin of putting his personal
interests above that of the party. There is reproduced here the
essential points taken from the text of the letter sent by Geiger
to Max Lillienthal in Riga.

. . You know, dear Sir, that for the past half century and more,
the center for progressive endeavors among the Jews has
been Germany; and it still is there today. Ever since I first
began to think — and I had occasion even quite early in life to
meditate most clearly and decisively on this subject — it has
been by most fervent wish to participate in these endeavors at
their very source of origin as actively as my abilities would
permit. I have prepared myself for this task most earnestly; I
have overcome many a scruple ... and have exposed myself
to much unpleasantness in the process. Yet I have firmly
adhered to my steadfast determination to be as forceful as
possible a voice of progress among my brethren. Praise be to
the Lord, for He has abundantly blessed my efforts. I am not
conceited enough to believe that I have achieved great things
for the welfare of the Jews, but I know that I have been
counted in the ranks of those who seek to divorce true religion
from superstition and to cleanse Judaism from the dross that
has encumbered it; I have been among those who are
endowed with an active mind for Wissenschaft and for
wedding that Wissenschaft with life and faith. To date my



name has earned far greater recognition than my feeble
successes deserve, and I may be hopeful that future literary
efforts on my part will yield additional fruit. Thank God, my
material circumstances have also taken a turn for the better
and my present position is an influential one.

However, there is still much that needs to be done even here
in the Fatherland, which is the center of this progress. Would I
not then be remiss in my duties if I were to leave here in order
to give of my energies to another country, where at present
only the after-effects of our own achievements can be felt?
Would it not be better that I remain here as before as the 'tail
of the lion"?

Would not my leaving here be gross ingratitude to my brethren
in my Fatherland ... and to the congregation here that labored
and struggled so mightily to have me belong to them? ... And I
might as well admit it — despite the fact that her authorities
reject me because I am a Jew, I still love Germany. Must love
have logical reasons? I feel my own being inextricably
interwoven with Germany's Wissenschaft, with the entirety of
its intellectual earnestness — and who could sever the nerve
fiber of his very being with impunity? Thus, though she, in
return for my own efforts and those of my brethren to enter
ever more completely into her life, genteelly excludes us. I
must remain in Germany. I must wage a dual fight, against the
reactionary elements among the Jews, on the one hand, and
against those privileged denominations who simply ignore all
things Jewish, on the other; and I must wait with hopeful
yearning for that day when that which has already been freely
given elsewhere shall be accorded to us here as the right to
which we are entitled ... (WG pp. 111-112)

When Geiger used the expression "tail of the lion," he was
referring to the Talmudic expression "it is better to be the tail of
a lion than to be the head of a fox." But the double meaning
had to do with the organizational goals of the lion, i.e., the
Bund. This letter was a death sentence to Lillienthal. The Bund
was most seriously agitated by the possibility of the impact of



the failure of Reform in Russia on the progress in other
countries of the plans to destroy Judaism. The Bund reasoned
that it had taken about 1 ,000 years for Christianity to spread
and become a world religion. They had estimated that it would
take about one century for Communism to become a world
ideology, which in fact it did, when one considers that the
majority of the people of the world are under its domination.
Because of poor communication between Russia and Europe,
it appeared it would take about seven years before the impact
of the defeat of Lillienthal would be felt in Western Europe.

While Geiger was engaging in his activities in Breslau, the
Bund had planned to build a seminary to be in Geiger's name
that would educate and train more phony rabbis for the Reform
movement. The money for this venture would be provided for
by a will left by Jonas Frankel. Jonas Frankel was a wealthy
banker and philanthropist. Frankel died in 1846. On August 10,
1854 the seminary opened. Flowever, it was not called the
Geiger Seminary as planned, it was now to be headed by a
new man, a Rabbi Zecharia Frankel (1801-1875). This Rabbi
Frankel was now going to help invent another movement. This
movement would be known as the Conservative movement,
and the seminary would be called the Jewish Theological
Seminary of Breslau, because the Bund had realized that
there would be a gap between religious traditionalists and the
extremes of Reform Judaism, and inventing this new
movement would provide further cause for dissension. The
Conservatives would take a position, that they believed in the
critical treatment of religious documents and thus could never
accept the Torah as being of Divine authorship. Unlike Reform
they would wish to conserve religious practices in Judaism for
cultural and other reasons. Thus Frankel and his cohorts
referred to themselves as being members of the "historical
school" which meant that they were committed to historical
criticism of Judaism indulged in by the Reform scholars.
Where did this stand in light of Jewish Law? According to



Jewish Law, a Jew who rejects even one word of the Torah as
being of Divine origin is to be cut off from his people, 33 so that
another "Jewish" escape from Judaism was put into operation.
For all of Geiger's efforts on behalf of the Bund, he was clearly

It was the Bund that had financed him since his college
days. It was while Geiger was at Heidelberg that the
revolutionary Berthold Auerbach (1812-1882) 35 had scouted
him out. His annual salary in Breslau was 800 thalers ($600). 36
The rest of his salary came from wealthy members, which
meant that he was at the mercy of the Bund. These
unscrupulous people had used filthy and underhanded tactics
to set him up in Breslau.

The Bund front organization in that community was an
Illuminati lodge, the Geselschaft der Brueder (Society of
Brethren), founded in 1779. 37 Agitation for Geiger came from
them. On the first day that Geiger was invited to be guest
preacher at the Breslau synagogue, the Chief Rabbi of the
city, Salomon A. Tiktin, raised a protest against Geiger. The
Jewish Encyclopedia author of Geiger's biography has
attempted to hide the true nature of a police investigation by
the Chief of Police of Breslau of Tiktin's complaint, claiming
that the objection was that Geiger had spoken in German
which was unheard of, and considered not in accordance with
"Orthodox" practice. However, this is nonsense because
Samson R. Hirsch who was portrayed by the Bund and in
today's anti-religious Jewish media as "ultra-Orthodox"
delivered his sermons in German. The truth is closer to what
Max Wiener reports in his book on Geiger. Wiener's remarks
are reproduced here.

Actually, this proved to be the beginning of open warfare.
Tiktin declared that Geiger was not deserving of his position,
since he had attacked religion in his journal. Besides, Tiktin
pointed out, Geiger was not even fit to hold Rabbinical office,
since he had been graduated from a university. Rumor had it



that he had been obliged to leave Wiesbaden after he had
been seen violating the Sabbath in public. And of course there
was the Prussian Cabinet Decree of 1823, which prohibited all
innovations in synagogue services. The fact that Geiger,
gowned in official clerical robes, had delivered a sermon in
pure German was construed as a violation of this decree.
Accusations of a different sort, and a good deal more
dangerous, were also leveled against Geiger. In these, he was
linked with suspect political circles and tendencies, and the
Prussian authorities were always prompt and thorough in
ferreting out the truth behind such charges. The representative
from Berlin in the Bundestag in Frankfort was charged with the
task of conducting a thorough investigation.

While Wiener has attempted to give us an historically
accurate picture he has been misled by leftist propaganda of
that era, which depicted the religious Jew as non-progressive,
opposed to speaking the language of his adopted country of
domicile, and opposed to enlightenment and a university
education. Hirsch and the other great religious Jewish
intellectuals were university graduates. Hirsch attended Bonn
University and knew Geiger. The university education and the
German sermon bit were phony issues. Wiener goes on to say
the investigation resulted in a clean bill of health. But
information handed down over the generations in the Frankfurt
community 38 to the present day indicates that immense bribes
were paid to hide his political affiliation.

This is further corroborated by the fact that a close friend of
Geiger who was in his inner circle of friends, Berthold
Auerbach, had been investigated by the government in 1837
and sentenced to Fiohenasperg prison for three months
because of his activities. To add insult to injury, Auerbach, a
gifted writer in his day, had published only a year earlier a
defense of charges of radicalism leveled against Jews of Ger-
many. His article was entitled Das Judentum und die Neuste
Literature, (Jewry and the New Literature). Plowever, Auerbach



was involved very deeply with the radicals, and was close to
Moses Hess when the latter worked with Marx and Engels.

Geiger's investigation in Breslau, conducted by the Bunde-
stag within a year of Auerbach's release from jail, would have
to be quashed. It is interesting to note that while the Jewish
Encyclopedia of 1906 makes mention of Auerbach's
imprisonment, the supposedly more comprehensive recent
Encyclopedia Judaica obliterates the information entirely.

Excerpts from Geiger's first Breslau sermon are reproduced

Assume that the time has come when you will stand before
the Judgment Seat of God, and that He will say to you: "I have
made known to you through My prophets the profoundest
essence of the Word that was revealed to you: It hath been
told thee, O man, what is good, and what the Lord doth
require of thee: Only to do justly, to love mercy, and to walk
humbly with thy God. And He will ask you now:

"Have you truly dealt justly with all men, even with those not of
your faith? Have you been mild and forbearing? Have you not,
in smug self-righteousness, overrating your own worth and
your own piety, forgotten about Me, your God?" If you must
then answer (since there can be no concealment of guilt
before Divine Omniscience): "O Lord, I have adhered to many
statutes and have kept them with scrupulous care — but I have
not always been just," would you not then realize that you had
neglected eternal values for the sake of transitory things?
There is an ancient tale about a dispute among straw, stubble
and chaff. Each of these three boasted that the field had been
sown for its sake alone. The grain of wheat, however, listened
to the quarrel from afar and said, "Wait until the owner of the
field comes, and then we shall see for whose sake the seed
has been sown." And behold, at harvest time the owner came;
he cast the straw to the ground, he burned the stubble, and
threw the chaff to the winds. But he gathered the grains of
wheat and guarded them carefully.



So, too, my Israelite, be very mindful of the pure and genuine
grain of wheat in your faith, of the pure fear of God, so that
you will work in behalf of the welfare of mankind. The outer
shell, the ritual forms, are but bearers of the spirit in which that
spirit becomes visible and by which it may mature; but do not
forget that they are of no further use to piety once they no
longer bear that spirit within them. Times and circumstances
change, and necessitate many modifications and new
institutions which, in keeping with contemporary
circumstances, are needed to keep our religion alive. O pray
that the Lord will not have to say to us also, They have
forsaken Me, the Fount of Living Waters, and hewed them out
cisterns, broken cisterns, that can hold no water. The living
water, ever fresh and new, constantly flows forth from the
fountain. But if you collect that water in a cistern so that it may
be sure to remain the same, that none of it may escape and
that new water cannot enter, then the drops may indeed
remain the same, but the water will soon grow stale; the taste

will be different; the spirit will have fled. Thus you too should

not seek to disturb the Divine order of things. The outer form is
subject to change; and if it should seek to assert itself
independently, without concern for the spirit, then, alas, it will
be stale and meaningless. But that which flows forth, eternally
new, from the inexhaustible Well-spring of Living Waters will
forever remain healthy and living throughout.

Therefore, my Israelite, do not complain when it seems to you
that things are changing. The truth is that nothing has really
changed. All that changes is the outer shell, only some
outward forms undergo modification; the essence of things
remains intact. Do not fear and be not misled by the talk of the
foolish who view a few concessions to the times as tan-
tamount to a collapse of the faith ... But neither must you allow

yourself to be misled by those others who reject the whole
faith of Israel merely because some outward forms are no
longer to their liking, and who would say with the Israelites at
the time of Ezekiel: Our bones are dried up, and our hope is
lost; we are clean cut off. No, our hope is not lost; the true
faith of Israel remains unshaken. (WG pp. 247-248)



It should be noted that Geiger was laying the foundation in
this sermon for the overthrow of Judaism. Meanwhile Tiktin
continued his attack on Geiger. The super-rich Bundists who
were on the Board of Directors of the Breslau Jewish
community suspended Rabbi Tiktin on phony charges, such as
that he had failed to give moral instruction to the congregation,
and neglected religious instruction to the young, and failed to
visit the sick. Tiktin refuted the charges and opened a
counterattack. He declared "a man like Geiger who did not
observe the 613 Commandments of the Torah could not be
considered a Jew let alone a member of the Rabbinate."
Geiger's defense was ridiculous. He claimed that the Talmud
had abolished some of the commandments of the Bible.

It should be realized that Geiger's background was
religious. He came from an observant Jewish home, and his
brothers, unlike him, were meticulous in their religious
observance. As a result of his fall from grace, Geiger struck
back. In 1854, when they opened the Breslau Seminary,
Geiger issued a new prayer book, which was a slap in the face
to the Reform movement. Up until that time Reform in
Germany had utilized a radically revised liturgy that had been
published in Hamburg in 1818. Now Geiger, whom the public
had acclaimed as a great reformer, had put out a prayer book
that was more traditional. 40

All this happened to Geiger because of the Fall of Reform in
Russia. Lillienthal could never come back to Germany to face
the music. His departure from Russia was sudden as historian
Lucy Davidowicz declares, "Lillienthal left Russia suddenly and
went to the U. S. where he was active as rabbi, author and
communal leader."

The philosophy of the Bund versus that of the religious
community could best be summarized by some quotations
from Lillienthal's own writing, My Educational Mission in
Russa, 42 in which conversations are described with the Vilna



Maggid (chief preacher of Vilna) in a spirited conversation
which they had. The Maggid stated:

"If apostasy should be the consequence of your proposed
reform I in the name of all my Jewish brethren protest against
it and prefer our isolated position to all the allurements of

Lillienthal characterized his German brethren as having:

"A profound knowledge of science and the arts; a readiness to
support every good institution, unbounded and unexampled
charity, dear heirloom of Israel, are the principle virtues
marking our brethren at present, and there is not the least
apprehension that the old blunders will be committed again
and again!"

He further went on to say:

"You will lay the cornerstone for the glorious edifice that the
future generations will erect while your present system is
unable to stop the wheels of human progress."

Lillienthal was simply saying that the new order would build
over the ashes of the religious even if he would fail in his own

After the abortive Communist revolution of 1848, there was
a mass exodus of Reform rabbis from Germany. These
radicals came to the U.S. and were able to work unhampered
in virgin territory to build a political power base and set the
stage for future Reform growth, and the destruction of
Judaism. Most Americans were not concerned with events in
Germany, and did not view these phony rabbis with any
suspicion, so their work went on unhindered. Having suffered
bitterly in the failure of the Communist revolution of 1848, they
were more circumspect in their ways, so that approximately a
decade after they left Germany, they became a power to be
reckoned with in the U.S., and it was primarily because of this
that Abraham Geiger, whom they considered as their mentor,



was destined to be reinstated to his former glory by the
International Communist Party in its secret activities.




When the wicked spring forth as the grass, and when all the
workers of iniquity flourish; it is that they shall be destroyed

(Psalms 92:7)

Geiger's non-appointment to be head of the Breslau
Seminary has been described as "perhaps the worst defeat of
his entire career." 43 However bad this setback was, he was to
be reinstated at a later date to his previous full glory for
several reasons, in addition to Reform growth in America. One
was because if Geiger would be allowed to rebel and flex his
muscles, it could ruin the Reform movement. Another was that
Geiger had also spawned the development of revolutionary
personalities around him, and if Geiger remained too far out of
the limelight there would be a danger that his proteges could
become estranged from the movement, for example, Lina
Morgenstern (1830-1909), who was 18 at the time of the
revolution of 1848, and lived in Breslau.

The International Communist Party carved out a role for
Lina in their schemes of division. Her specialty was men and
women. She fell into the pattern of good deeds and
Philanthropy on the outside, which brought great prestige to
herself, and less criticism for her political activities. Lina
Morgenstern was one of the forerunners of Women's Lib, and
organized the first International Women's Congress in 1896,



which boasted 1800 delegates. She also was active in the
German Society for the preservation of peace. Then, like
today, most organizations that had peace in their titles were
really up to something else, dissension and revolution. The
International Party could not afford to lose such talent, so the
super-rich decided to keep Geiger in limbo in Breslau and to
support him in some of his scholarly works. They therefore
sponsored what is considered to be his magnum opus entitled,
The Original Text and Translations of the Bible and Their
Relation to the Inner Development of Judaism, which in
German was simply referred to as Geiger's Urschrift. The book
was published in 1857 and was presented by Geiger to the
world on the occasion of his 25th anniversary in the phony rab-

Geiger's wife died in 1860. After that the clandestine
Communists decided to send Geiger to Frankfurt because they
could not control Leopold Stein, the phony Chief Rabbi, to toe
the party line. Stein refused to submit to censorship from his
Board of Directors regarding sermons or official business as a
representative of the community before the public authorities. 45
So Geiger went to Frankfurt in 1862, home of the Schiffs and
Rothschilds, who controlled its communal life. Fie was
embraced from that time on by the Frankfurt inner circle. One
of the great moments in his life came at the funeral of James
(Jacob) Rothschild, the youngest of the five sons of Mayer
Amschel (1744-1812). It was James (1792-1868) who staked
much capital on the revolution of 1848, and who was a heavy
loser. 46 On June 15, 1805, James married Bette Rothschild,
his first cousin, the daughter of Shlomo Mayer, otherwise
known as Solomon, founder of the Vienna branch. The
Rothschilds had tried to keep the money in the family. The
Jewish Encyclopedia records that, of 58 marriages in the
Rothschild family, 29 were with cousins. Rothschild died
November 15, and a special memorial service was held on
November 29, 1868. Guess who delivered the sermon? Why



none other than Abraham Geiger. Most of the text of Geiger's
eulogy is to be found in Wiener's book. 47 Some remarks of
interest are as follows (italics mine):

1. "We may well derive gratification from the fact that our
own native city should have brought forth such a power,
which has wrought fruitful changes and has wrested
recognition from those who hold sway in proud palaces."

2. "Let us be gratefully aware of the fact that the eye of
God's grace rests upon this city."

3. "It was here that a broader view of the world unfolded."

4. "Many are those who have had their roots here, and
under whose shade the whole world has found fresh
vigor, for they have put to use for the good of all mankind
those talents and that inspiration which they received
from the place of their birth."

5. "They were living and accusing witnesses against all the
intolerance which still was shown the Sons of Israel's
faith against the base passions that sought to exalt
themselves as religious truths, and against that medieval
narrowness which sought to clothe itself in the rich
drapery of the cloak of religion."

6. "As princes of peace they were welcomed everywhere."

7. "A bountiful outpouring of blessings flowed forth from
their homes ... they built hospitals for the sick and
clothed the naked."

Geiger also stated of the Rothschilds in his sermon:

"For they have all remained faithful to the Covenant of Israel

and have loyally adhered to it."

If this were true, of course, they would never have had the
likes of a Geiger deliver the eulogy. After he said all those
wonderful things about the Flouse of Rothschild, Geiger put a
bid in for himself, he also knew that the super-rich wished to
continue their work of breaking up Judaism, and he knew that
many seminaries were planned to achieve these goals. Fie,
therefore, asked the Rothschilds to finance such an institution



saying, "Let the name of him who had now departed be
associated with a new institution of this type." Is it coincidence
then that the revolutionary jailbird Auerbach "very discreetly
began to sound him out" 48 on his availability as Chief Rabbi of
Berlin. Geiger was installed as Chief Rabbi of Berlin January
22, 1870, and Auerbach wrote him concerning a sermon on
the occasion saying, 'you may well be content for you have
greatly moved everyone present and you will achieve great

What was so great about Geiger's sermons? What was
interesting about Geiger's sermons were that he spoke on two
levels. He was simultaneously sermonizing to the public and to
insiders when he spoke on certain occasions.

It is well known in some circles that when Masons meet
even in the presence of non-Masons they will exchange
greetings that will not be perceptible to the uninitiated. For
example, they refer to travel, which in Masonese refers to
initiation into Masonic rites. There are other walks of life that
have their own jargon. For example, there is a slang prevalent
with circus people or with auctioneers. An auctioneer may
exclaim concerning the person that he wishes to be watched:
"two ten the beetle," which means: "observe the woman."
Similarly we Rabbis have punctuated our conversation and
letters with certain Talmudic terms that would escape
detection by censors. For example, the great Rabbi Isaac
Elchanan Spektor was able to smuggle information concerning
Jewish persecution in Czarist Russia using this method in
what appeared to be innocuous letters.

The inner circle of the Communist revolutionaries spoke or
addressed audiences and even wrote on two levels. Those
items that I have italicized are really a message for the
insiders that were present, and they deserve comment.

They are summarized below as to their meaning.



1. FRUITFUL CFIANGES-this refers to the changes that
were brought about by the backers of the Communist
Conspiracy and their plans to change the world.
SWAY IN PROUD PALACES— refers to what could best
be described by Professor Quigley as "nothing less than
to create a world system of financial control in private
hands able to dominate the political system of each
country and the economy of the world as a whole."

2. THE EYE RESTS — this refers to a symbol of the
Illuminati, which is an eye inside of a triangle, and can be
found on every American dollar bill. The triangle that
encompasses the eye is a symbol of Plato's three
classes, it is also a symbol of pagan altars. The eye is
the eye of the pagan deity Baal which was also
worshipped in Egypt as Baal Peor. It also became
identified with the Egyptian Osiris and with Shamas, the
sun god, and Anunit, the sun goddess.

A cult was established throughout history, dedicated to the
All-Seeing Eye. In a book by Robert Keith Spenser 50 exposing
the cult, he makes much of the astounding fact that this
symbol, which is a reverse seal of the Great Seal of the United
States, has been cloaked in mystery, so much so that "the
custodian of the Great Seal refuses to allow any examination
of the files in her possession by historians, even though the
Seal is uniquely a part of our national inheritance." 51

Spenser reproduces some articles by Theodore Roosevelt's
granddaughter, Edith Kermit Roosevelt, exposing some
activities of the cult in 1962. 52 Miss Roosevelt exposes a
Temple of Understanding built in Washington which, under
very fishy circumstances, is part of the cult of the All-Seeing
Eye. The Temple contains a Hall of Illumination. The All-
Seeing Eye having been associated with ancient pagan rites,



also is a symbol of enlightenment because of its association
with sun worship. The sun "illuminates."

The Latin on the American dollar bill over the eye Annuit
Coeptis means "God has prospered" The Annuit was probably
chosen because of its dual meaning. When you displace an
"n", you get Anuni, which was the pagan sun goddess. Anunit
was akin in the Babylonian Pantheon to Shamas, the sun god.
On the bottom of the Seal on our dollar bill appears the legend
Novus ordo seclorum, which literally means "the new order of
the ages." In mythology it is a Golden Age during which the
Saturnian kingdom will return. Saturn was the father of Osiris.
The Annuit Coeptis was also connected with the Golden Age
of Prosperity. This Golden Age is the age of the Platonic
Republic or the rule of the wealthy intellectual classes over the
new Communistic world. Both Latin legends are drawn from
verses in Virgil: 53 "Favor my daring undertaking" and the
"Great series of ages begins anew."

Miss Roosevelt names the people who were behind this
project. Among them are Jerome Davis of New Haven, Conn.,
who heads a strange group called "Promoting Enduring
Peace," whose literature is distributed by a front group
operated by the tax-exempt Lucis Trust On 11 West 42d
Street. Many years ago, the Lucis Trust was openly called the
Lucifer Trust, because it was involved with devil worship cults.
In order to appear less conspicuous, it changed its name in

Also mentioned by Miss Roosevelt is the Reverend Lee H.
Ball, executive secretary of the Methodist Federation for Social
Action, which was cited as a Communist front by the Senate
Internal Security Committee on April 23, 1956. He was cited as
"one of the prime individuals involved in the Communist
conspiracy to subvert the Church for Communist purposes."

Interestingly enough, the Temple was also supported by
specific prominent individual clergy which included Reform
clergymen Norman Gerstenfeld, Maurice Eisendrath, Nelson



Glueck, the deceased head of Hebrew Union College (the
Reform movement's primary ordaining institution in the world)
and Roland B. Gittelsohn of Boston, as well as the former
head of the Conservative movement's Jewish Theological
Seminary of America, Louis Finkelstein, 54 and Israel Goldstein
of the American Jewish Congress.

3. BROADER VIEW OF THE WORLD— this special interest
group must work on an international scale and be aware
of everything that is going on in the world, and eventually
consolidate its power through world government.

4. FOR THE GOOD OF ALL MANKIND— this refers to the
goal of the Communist Conspiracy to exercise power
over the affairs of all men so they have few options open
tn thpm tn pyprri^p

the goal to eliminate the opiate of religion and to destroy
religion as a factor in the world.

6. PRINCES OF PEACE — refers to its Opposite meaning,
which is dissent and which is a front for many subversive
activities throughout the world. The princes are the ruling
class, and there is also the implication that they
supersede Princes of peace in particular world religions
such as Jesus or Buddha or the Jewish messianic

FORTH — this refers to the tremendous amounts of
money including genuine philanthropy that has been
carefully distributed and assigned for specific purposes
to further the "cause" such as for funding revolutions or
financing radical and subversive political movements that
cannot properly exist without such financing.

In the fall of 1 871 , the Geiger Seminary opened its doors in
Berlin. From this seminary came such enemies of authentic



Judaism as Felix Adler (1851-1933), Geiger's own student, 55
founder of the Society of Ethical Culture, which till this very
day supports Communist causes and Third World
Revolutionary Movements. This movement has been a source
of ire to sincere members of the Reform movement who don't
know what is going on, because after Adler started it in 1876, it
nearly destroyed Reform in America. 56 Solomon Schechter 57
(1850-1915), another Geiger disciple, probably did more than
any other individual in the Twentieth Century as head of the
Jewish Theological Seminary in America and prime mover of
the Conservative movement in contributing to the destruction
of authentic Jewish values in the Western world. We shall
discuss Schechter in detail in Volume II.








For there shall be no hereafter for evil, illumination of the
wicked shall be extinguished.

(Proverbs 24:20)

For illumination is a commandment and law is light.

(Proverbs 6:23)

Plaving considered fleetingly the origins of the Illuminati in
our discussions of the Reform movement and the Bund der
Gerechten, we shall now discuss in greater detail the
organization and operations of the Illuminati that preceded by
about two generations the period just discussed.

While perhaps logically one would wish to present history
as a chronology, the author feels that the reader could better
appreciate the inauspicious beginnings of the Illuminati having
come upon the scene of 19th century political and religious
turmoil with which he could more closely relate to present day

It is known that political scientists are divided as to the
Illuminati and its relationship with the Communist Party. There
is no argument about the relationship between the Illuminati
and the Jacobins, who executed the terror during the French
Revolution. There is also no argument among prominent
Judaica Scholars as to the continuum that existed between
Jewish-born heretics who were followers of the false Messiah
Shabbetai Tzvi (1626-1676) through his successors, the
radical practitioners of the Sabbatian cult called the Frankists



(named after their founder, Jacob Frank (1726-1791), the
Jacobins and the Reform movement. The Illuminati paralleled
the Frankists in both time and geography, the seat of both
movements being in Germany-the Illuminati in Ingolstadt,
Bavaria, and the Frankists in Offenbach after 1786. We shall
demonstrate that from the Jewish perspective there is a
relationship between the Illuminati and the Communists.

The connection between Frankists and Jacobins, and
Frankists and the Reform movement, has been brought to light
by one of the greatest living authorities on the mystical
Kabbalistic literature, Professor Gershom G. Scholem 1 of the
Hebrew University, Jerusalem. We furthermore have the
testimony of John Robison in his Proofs of a Conspiracy, pub-
lished in 1798, which details the development of the Illuminati
and its rise to power, their connection with the Jacobins, and
with the terror that took place during the French Revolution.
The famous Count Mirabeau of French Revolution fame was,
according to Robison, a member of the Illuminati. In addition to
Robison's work, there also exist the writings of Abbe Augustin
Barruel, who wrote Memoirs Illustrating the History of
Jacobinism in 1799.

Robison traces the Illuminati to an aberration in
Freemasonry started by Adam Weishaupt and assisted by
Baron Adolf Franz Friedrich Knigge (1752-1 796). 3 Knigge is
mentioned constantly throughout Robison's book. At the end
of the first chapter of Robison's Conspiracy book entitled
Schisms in Free Masonry, he says Baron Knigge and other
cosmo-political brethren formed a scheme for uniting radical
Masonic lodges in Germany. Knigge was dissatisfied with all
the degrees in Freemasonry, and he wanted to carry things a
step further.

In Chapter II, Robison presents a list of lodges of the
Illuminati existing primarily in Germany with a few in England.
Scotland, Poland, Switzerland, France and Italy, as well as
America. He also gives names of members. Some of the more



important Illuminati mentioned by Robison were given code
names. These code names were based for the most part on
classical Greek and Roman personalities who were known for
their ruthlessness and Cynicism. In Table I is found an
alphabetical listing of the most prominent Illuminati, taken from
Robison with their respective occupation or rank indicated.

Weishaupt had the code name of Spartacus; Knigge, Philo;
Count Mirabeau, Cornelius Scipio; Nicholai, 4 Lucian. Lucian
was the great scoffer of religion. Particularistic tasks involving
the undermining of religion were given to Nicholai. The
radicalism of the Illuminati was manifested in public and in pri-
vate. Their goal was to abolish Christianity and overturn all
civil government. 5

In 1783, four professors of Marianen Academy were
summoned before a court of inquiry and questioned on their
allegiance to the Order of the Illuminati. During these inquiries
it was brought out that the Order abjured Christianity and
refused admission into its higher degrees to all who adhered to
Catholicism's three confessions. According to Robison,

"Sensual pleasures were restored to the rank they held in the
Epicurean philosophy. Self-murder was justified on Stoical
principles. In the Lodges, death was declared an eternal
sleep; patriotism and loyalty were called narrow-minded
prejudices, and incompatible with universal benevolence;
continual declamations were made on liberty and equality as
the unalienable rights of man. The baneful influence of
accumulated property was declared an insurmountable
obstacle to the happiness of any nation whose chief laws were
framed for its protection and increase."

Again, all this is quite in keeping with Weishaupt's own
code name Spartacus, the man who headed the insurrection
of slaves and kept Rome in terror and uproar for three years. 7




Baader, Professor
Babo, Professor
Bahrdt, Clergyman
Bart, Counsellor
Bode, Author, Tutor
Braun, Canon
Burzes, Priest

Constanza, Marquise
Cossandey, Professor

Danzer, Canon
Dillis, Abbe
Drexl, Librarian

Ecker, Count

Fischer, Magistrate
Frauenberger, Baron

Gaspar, Merchant
Grunberger, Professor
Gunsheim, Count

Hertel, Canon

Hoffstetter, Surveyor of Roads

Kaltner, Lieutenant
Knigge, Author
Kreitmaier, Prince
Kundle, Counsellor
Kindler, Professor

Lieberhauer, Priest
Lippert, Counsellor

Lowling, Professor

Massenhausen, Count
Mauvillon, Colonel
Meggenhott Paymaster
Mirabeau, Count
Morausky, Count
Morgealan, Count

Nicholai, Bookseller

Orleans, Duke
Ow, Major

Pfruntz, Priest

Renner, Professor

Savioli, Count
Seefeld, Count
Socher, School Inspector
Strobl, Bookseller

Torring, Count

Utschneider, Professor

Vachency, Counsellor

Weishaupt, Professor
Werner, Counsellor
Westenrieder, Professor
Wortz, Apothecary

Zwack, Lawyer

Table 1 — Alphabetical list of Illuminati members and their
occupations (based on Robison)



Following this expose of the Order, it was discovered that
Weishaupt was its head. Fie was deprived of his professor's
Chair and banished from Bavaria. Fie went to Regensburg,
where he continued his activities. Along with him, two Italians,
the Marquis Constanza and the Marquis Savioli, were also
banished, together with a lawyer named Zwack, while some
other members were imprisoned. 8

Robison further exposes letters of secret correspondence
between members of the Illuminati in which he reveals how
debased some of them were. For example in a memo from
Spartacus to Cato, which was from Weishaupt to lawyer
Zwack, dated March 17, 1778, Weishaupt sets down a
blueprint for engaging in espionage. In the writings of Zwack
were the plans for a Women's Liberation movement. Zwack

"It should consist of two classes: the virtuous and the freer-
hearted (i.e., those who fly out of the common tract of prudish
manners) ... Proper books must be put into their hands, and
such as are flattering to their passions."

Found with Zwack's writings after his death are descriptions
of a strong box which, if forced open, would blow up and
destroy its contents; recipes for securing an abortion; a
chemical composition which blinds or kills when spurted in the
face; a recipe for invisible ink; a formula for making a tea
which induces abortion; a method for filling a bedroom with
poisonous gas; methods for forging seals of state, including a
collection of several hundred such impressions, with a list of
their owners including princes, nobles, clergymen and
prominent merchants; a copy of a manuscript entitled Better
Than Fiorus, which was printed and distributed at a Leipzig
fair, containing an attack and a bitter satire on all religion. 9

After this was exposed, the Illuminati said that all of the
dreadful medical apparatus properly belonged in the hands of
Zwack because, after all, he was a judge of the criminal court



and it was his duty to know such things. The same excuse was
also offered, for his collection of seals but, of course, the
damning question was, "Why were these things found among
the papers of the Illuminati?" When Weishaupt was confronted
with this, his reaction was "These things were not carried into
effect, only spoken of, and were justifiable when taken in
proper connection."

In another memo from Spartacus to Cato, Weishaupt is
rather verbose about his anti-religious philosophy. He felt that
Freemasonry is Concealed Christianity and that "Christ"
should be substituted with the word "reason." He then calls for
a new religion and a new state government, which explains
Masonic symbols and combines them in one degree. He also
makes reference that there is now in the Order a famous
Protestant theologian who feels that the Order of the Illuminati
is the true sense of Christianity and takes great pride that he is
now the founder of a new religion.

In another piece of correspondence from Philo (Knigge) to
Cato (Zwack), Knigge refers to religious authorities as cheats
who bow to superstition and fanaticism. He advocates a slow
overthrow of religion so that the fanatics will not be alarmed
and will not be aware of what is going on. Of Jewish mysticism
he declares: "The Jewish Theosophy was a mystery like the
Eleusinsian, or the Pythagorean, unfit for the vulgar."

In September 1783, Weishaupt wrote to code name Marius
(Canon Hertel) that he is in danger of losing my honor and my
reputation, by which I have long had such influence. What
think you-my sister-in-law is with child?" He goes on further to
say, "We have tried every method in our power to destroy the
child." He then begs Marius to try to get a doctor to kill his
sister-in-law. He claims that she is in her fourth month. Then
he blames the priests because they consider abortion to be
criminal. 12 Robison points out that when this happened,
Zwack's sister is recorded as having committed suicide.



Robison speculates that she is perhaps the person Weishaupt
was speaking about . 13

Robison offers an interesting insight into why the Illuminati
were interested in setting up Sisterhoods and promoting
Women's Liberation. Citing some of the Illuminati
philosophers, he feels that the female mind is well adapted to
cultivation by means of religion, and that feminine softness
and kindness of heart and the virtues of motherhood would
always tend to push men into more noble pursuits and towards
religion. The new Order, by changing the women, could
hopefully force the sentiments of men to change, and they
would not be so "foolish as to keep in force laws which cramp
their strongest desires. Then will the rich have their harems
and the poor their drudges ." 14 As the Illuminati spread over
Germany, in addition to using the Freemasons and attempting
to subvert legitimate Freemasonic Lodges into their Order,
they also set up Reading Societies. On their book list were
such works as Basedow's Practical Knowledge, Eberhard's
Apology for Socrates, Meiner's Ancient Mysteries, Bahrdt's
Letters on the Bible, and Completion of the Plan and Aim of
Jesus Christ. These books were all anti-religious in character
and tended to influence men into shaking off any moral
obligations They also encouraged people to behave in a
Machiavellian manner an their civil conduct.

The Illuminati also encouraged their members through
machinations and intrigues to obtain positions or places of
trust and influence. Robison mentions that when the
publication of a list of members came out in Germany, persons
were astonished to find themselves in every quarter "in the
midst of villains that were plotting against the peace and
happiness of the country and destroying every sentiment of
religion, morality and loyalty ." 15

Robison traces Illuminati activities through the German
Union and in his final fourth chapter he discusses their role in
the French Revolution. Fie notes that during the Revolution,



cosmo-political and skeptical opinions and sentiments were
able to find full expression in the political occurrences in
France. He delves into the intrigues of the famous Count
Honore Gabriel Riqueti Mirabeau (1749-1791), not to be con-
fused with his father Victor (1 71 5-1 789).

Robison then tells us that Mirabeau published an essay on
a fictitious group, the "Illuminated" in Berlin. In the essay,
Mirabeau calls the "Illuminated" "absurd and gross fanatics,
waging war with every appearance of reason and maintaining
the most ridiculous superstitions." He also describes in the
essay rituals and ceremonies of his own invention. Robison
claims that Mirabeau wrote this essay as a master stroke of
political intrigue to conceal from the world his rumored
association with the Illuminati.

Shortly thereafter Nicholai utilized Mirabeau's essay and
gave the name "Obscuranten" to the society that Mirabeau
ridiculed. Then the Illuminati utilized this mystical
"Obscuranten" society as a weapon to destroy their political
enemies so that they immediately labeled several persons to
be members of the Obscuranten, securing their own
advantage. 16

The history books tell much about Mirabeau. Being in the
public eye, he was known as the founder of the Jacobins, and
as a sexually depraved individual. He literally sold his mother
"down the river" for money after being liberated from prison for
a misdemeanor and needing money. He helped his father
secure a separation from his mother for 100 guineas. Then he
went to his mother and got money from her to go against his

In 1786, Mirabeau, in conjunction with the Duke de Lauzon
and the Abbe Perigord, formed a radical lodge in Paris, which
met in the Jacobin college-hence the name "Jacobins." The
lodge was in constant contact with Germany. So important did
the German Illuminati regard the Jacobin lodge that they sent
an entire delegation of German Illuminati to foment the French



Revolution. Of the Jacobin goals in Paris, Robison tells us,
"They meant to abolish the laws that protected property
accumulated by long, continued and successful industry, and
to prevent for the future any such accumulation... And, as
necessary preparations for all this, they intended to root out all
religion and ordinary morality and even to break the bonds of
domestic life by destroying the veneration for religious vows,
and by taking the education of the children out of the hands of
the parents. This was all that the Illuminati could touch, and
this was precisely what France has done." 17

Robison goes on to explain how the Duke of Orleans was
seduced by Mirabeau into becoming a degenerate. Robison
describes how the Duke of Orleans obtained, at Mirabeau's
instigation, 300 prostitutes that were sent "to illuminate" two
battalions who were coming to Versailles for the protection of
the royal famity. 18

Robison further declares that the Duke of Orleans, before
his death, acknowledged that vast sums were used to bribe
mobs such as those that came from Paris to Versailles on the
5th of October, 1789. They had their pockets stuffed with
crown pieces supplied by Orleans, who had been seen
circulating with others with a tremendous bag of money. 19

Robison continues to describe how after the Revolution, the
Jacobins, through the Illuminati, continued their depraved
influence on life in France For example, he describes a man
named Zimmerman as one of the great of the Illuminati in
France. Zimmerman would get up on the pulpit with a saber in
his hand and cry out, "Behold, Frenchmen, this is your god.
This alone can save you." Robison also accuses the Illuminati
of attempting to pass a law that would establish Atheism. 20

During the French Revolution, the strength of the Illuminati
had been concentrated in Regensburg as a result of
Weishaupt's forced exile. Quoting from another author
Ploffman, a second plan was now being put into effect for a
revolution in Germany. Ploffman states, 1



"All of us jointly swore opposition to the Illuminati, and my
friends considered me as a proper instrument for this pro-
posal. To whet my zeal, they put papers into my hands that
made me shudder... The intelligent saw in the open system of
the Jacobins the complete hidden System of the Illuminati. We
knew that this system considered the whole world in its aims
and France was only the place of its first explosion."

In a Postscript to his book , 22 Robison writes that he has
seen Abbe Barruel's book on the history of Jacobinism, which
has confirmed everything that he has said concerning the
"Enlighteners." He shows unquestionably,

"... that a formal and systematic conspiracy against religion
was formed, and zealously prosecuted by Voltaire dAlembert
and Diderot, assisted by Frederick II, King of Prussia, and I
see that their principles and their procedure have been the
same with those of the manner of German atheists and
anarchists. Like them, they hired an army of writers; they
industriously pushed their writings into every house and every
cottage. Those writings were equally calculated for inflaming
the sensual appetites of men and for perverting their
judgment. They endeavored to get the command of the schools,
particularly those for the lower classes; and they erected and
managed a prodigious number of libraries and Reading Societies."

Robison's remarks sound almost identical with those
accusations against Marxist-Leninist activities that have
emanated in recent years from the hallowed halls of the
Congress of the United States.

Of course, the Jews also had their "enlighteners who
appeared on the horizon at that time, and their movement is
referred to as the "Haskala." While we have shown the
connection between some of the members of the Haskala in
Russia in connection with the attempted overthrow of Judaism,
and the Bund der Gerechten, the question is, "Were their
predecessors Jacobins, or were they linked in any way with
members of the Illuminati?" The answer is a definitive "Yes,"
for when Count Mirabeau came to Paris to form the Jacobins



in 1786, that was the year of Moses Mendelssohn's death, and
not only that, but Count Mirabeau attended his funeral and
even wrote an essay about the man. Who was this man Moses
Mendelssohn? And what was his influence on the Haskala?

Moses Mendelssohn was born on September 6, 1729 in
Dessau, Germany. When Mirabeau attended his funeral, it
was after January 4, 1786, the day of his death. 23 The title of
Mirabeau's essay was Sur Mose Mendelssohn sur la Reforme
Politique des Juifs which means Concerning Moses
Mendelssohn on Political Reform of the Jews, which appeared
in London in 1787. 24 In his essay Mirabeau argues that the
faults of the Jews were those of their circumstances, and that
the Jews could be made useful citizens if they could get rid of
the "dark phantoms of the Talmudists." Mirabeau was very
much akin to the personality of an Antiochus, who would
accept a Jew as long as he was a Hellenist, in
contradistinction to a Haman who wanted Jews dead.
Mirabeau wanted the Jew to disappear by assimilation.

Moses Mendelssohn is regarded by many as the father of
the Haskala movement. Indeed he was a role model for
German Jewry for assimilation. For example, in Maurice
Schwartz's Yiddish theatrical presentation of "The Family
Karnovsky" 25 in 1948, Karnovsky, a German Jew, returns from
World War I, marries a Gentile and justifies it because of
Moses Mendelssohn. Many writers, even in discussing other
subjects, will usually mention in passing Moses Mendelssohn's
influence on the Haskala. For example, Rufus Learsi, in writing
on The History of the Jews in America states:

"But the traditional or religious way of life which the bulk of the
immigrants from Eastern Europe carried with them to America
was no longer unchallenged, even in their homelands.
Intellectual and social movements were already afoot in all of
them whose basic character was secular. The first and the
oldest was Haskala, which traced its origin back to Moses
Mendelssohn, the frail and gentle sage of Berlin, who dies
three years before the outbreak of the French Revolution." 26



Dr. Simon Noveck, editor of Great Jewish Personalities in
Modern Times, says of the Haskala that it was among the
Jews of Berlin, 27

"... that secular interests made their greatest progress. Here
existed the largest Jewish community in Germany, totaling
around 4,000 Jewish immigrants, even before Mendelssohn's
death, It was in Berlin that the organized Haskala movement,
representing the first systematic attempt of Jews to meet the
challenges of the modern world, grew up. The leader of the
movement around whom the enlightened gathered and to
whom all looked for inspiration was Moses Mendelssohn."

The historian Max Dimont tells us something else about his
opinions of Mendelssohn, which belie not only Mendelssohn's
true position with respect to authentic Judaism, but Dimont's
attitude towards religious Jews. Dimont's view, in his Jews,
God and History, is that religious Jews are like refuse. Says

"Mendelssohn clearly saw the dilemma of and the danger to
the Jews. If they remained in the ghetto, they would stagnate
into a meaningless existence. If on the other hand they were
catapulted out of the ghetto by the new social forces
shattering feudalism without being prepared for the
Enlightenment, they would be swallowed up by the dominant
Christian majority. Mendelssohn saw his task as two-fold: first,
to give the Jews a tool for their own emancipation; second, to
prepare a new basis for the Judaic values once the old
religious norms were rejected. The way Hercules diverted the
flow of the two rivers into the Augean stables to clean out
decades of accumulated refuse, so Mendelssohn channeled
the currents of the "Aufklarung" into the ghetto to sweep out
centuries of accumulated orthodoxy." 28

All these citations are just exemplary of the popularly held
view that Mendelssohn is the original "Maskil" (Enlightener) of
the Haskala. What, however, were the salient messages and



goals that Mendelssohn wanted to get across to his generation
of Jews? They may be summarized as follows:

1. Aid the Jews in moving out of the ghetto by telling them
that they must acquire the culture of their country in
order to do this and, through this, begin a process of

2. Sell the viewpoint that the Jewish religion has no dogmas
or articles of faith. Its spirit is "Freedom in doctrine and
conformity in action."

3. Popularize the concept that the doctrines and ethical
teachings of Judaism are those of reason, and hence,

4. Establish Judaism as only a "religion" and that loyalty to
it is compatible with a national state.

There is no doubt that the stature of Mendelssohn as a role
model of an intellectual Jew helped better the civil rights of
Jews in Germany and throughout Europe. Plowever, when one
studies the philosophy of Mendelssohn and compares his
theology with that of either of his great contemporary co-
religionists such as Immanuel Kant or the great Talmudic
Scholar, Rabbi Ezekiel Landau of Prague (1713-1793), one is
rather appalled how such a second rate philosopher and
theologian gets star billing in the history books, and seems to
have found such tremendous and instantaneous recognition in
the Germany of his day.

While it is true that Mendelssohn had made a name for
himself before the founding of the Illuminati in 1776, it is rather
startling that the works for which he is best known in the
Jewish community, a philosophical treatise entitled Jerusalem
and his Biur, which was a translation of the Bible into German,
were neither written nor published until after the Illuminati had
gotten off the ground in Germany. Jerusalem appeared in
1783, and the first volume of his Biur came out in 1783.
Mendelssohn was aided in putting out the Biur by a circle of



fellow Enlighteners, which included Naftali Hertz Weisel, Aaron
Friedenthal and Hertz Homberg . 29




You shall not act thus towards the Lord your God, for they
perform for their gods every abhorrent act that the Lord
detests; they even offer up their sons and daughters in fire to
their gods.

(Deuteronomy 12:31)

If you hear it said in one of the cities that the Lord your God is
giving you to dwell in, that some scoundrels from among you
have gone and subverted the inhabitants of their cities, saying,
"Come, let us worship other gods...

(Deuteronomy 13:13,14)

All religious laws, moral and political systems, are but
necessary means to perceive social order... and can be
changed in accordance with circumstances of the time.

(Ch'en Tu-Hsiu (1879-1942),
father of the Chinese Communist Party)

He that prophesizes in the name of a strange god... is
culpable even if he conformed with the Halacha (Jewish law).

(Mishnah, Sanhedrin 11 :6)

It was par for the course in the Illuminati, as well as in the
Communist party of today, that second-rate performers would
get star billing. It has been said that,



"The Communist Conspiracy offers to its recruits and col-
laborators 'more than just a foothold for total power.' For those
evil and ruthless and unscrupulous instances to serve it, the
Conspiracy offers great and immediate rewards. An
unprincipled and second rate professor is made a college
president; a scheming bureaucrat becomes a senator; an
unknown but useful singer is catapulted into international
stardom." 30

As we zero in on Mendelssohn's life, we find that his
innermost circle is dominated by Nicholai of the Illuminati
(1733-1811), who is recorded in most reference works as
"Nicolai" 31 In 1757, before the Illuminati was established, he
founded, with Mendelssohn, the Bibliothek der schonen
Wissenschaften (The Library of Fine Philosophy) which was a
periodical devoted to philosophy. 32

Nicolai, who was at the center of the Illuminati's anti-
religious activism, was also involved in other literary projects
with Mendelssohn well before the founding of the Illuminati.
Together with Lessing, they had founded the Briefe die
Neueste Literatur betreffend (1759). Nicolai was editor from
1765 to 1792 of the Allgemene Deutsche Bibliothek, which
was a philosophical periodical of the Bibliothek, the
Encyclopedia Britannica tells us, "The Bibliothek served as the
organ of the so-called popular philosophers who warred
against authority and religion." Mendelssohn, naturally, was
one of the contributors to the Bibliothek.

Indeed the relationship of Nicolai and Mendelssohn was so
close that Nicolai inherited all of Mendelssohn's original
writings, written correspondence and notes after his death in
1786. 33

From Robison's account we know that it was Nicolai's
function, with the code name "Lucian" to undermine religion.
Mendelssohn fits nicely into the Illuminati picture, so much so
that we know that he was an enthusiast of Plato, being dubbed
after the publication of his Phaedon (1767), which was
modeled after Plato's Dialogue Phado, as the "German Plato."



There seems to be a conscious attempt when one reads
Jewish scholarly writings to hide this. For example, in the B'nai
Brith Sponsored biography on Mendelssohn, Alfred Jospe
says that Mendelssohn was called the "Jewish Plato." One can
only wonder if there is not indeed a cover up here to prevent
the identification of Mendelssohn with the Illuminati. Perhaps
one of the most damning statements that could reflect on
Mendelssohn in this capacity is Robison's reference to
Socratism as identical with llluminatism, and the fact that
Mendelssohn was also called the "German Socrates."

Perhaps one could argue that this is but a minor error on
Jasper's part, except why does this author who is a prominent
B'nai Brith Hillel executive refer to Nicolai as Friedrich Nicholai
when the latter's full name is Christoph Friedrich? And why
does he propagandize and write in glowing terms about Men-
delssohn, when clearly Mendelssohn's impact on Judaism was
more of a curse than a blessing?

Mendelssohn fits the Illuminati pattern very well. By only
criticizing Jewish dogma and still firmly maintaining the
authenticity of Jewish observance, Mendelssohn is subtly
advocating the gradual overthrow of Judaism. By putting
Judaism on strictly logical grounds and ignoring its
transcendental, emotional and gut reaction aspects,
Mendelssohn accepts one of the avowed goals of the Illuminati
to "substitute reason for religious faith." Mendelssohn thus
joins the "army of hired writers" referred to by Robison, who
were part of the systematic Illuminati conspiracy against
religion. Plowever, what is not too well known is that even
more than engaging in writing, Mendelssohn trained disciples
for the French Revolution. Mirabeau's relationship then with
Mendelssohn, and even writing about Mendelssohn, was not a
mere accident or act of sentiment. One of Mendelssohn's
disciples, who was a Jacobin, was another Maskil named
Zalkind-Flourwitz (1740-1812).



An interesting point is brought up in the careers of both
Nicolai and Mendelssohn, as well as with Knigge who was
also tied in with Nicolai and Mendelssohn. 38 Apparently these
kindred Spirits harbored revolutionary thoughts long before
there was an organization for them to implement these
thoughts into action. The Illuminati provided not only the
organizational structure for action, but also a milieu for these
people to engage in an organized conspiracy, for we know that
when kindred spirits unite under the name of an organization,
evils that an individual may just contemplate can be put into
action, and that groups will not hesitate to effectuate what a
single individual has hesitations about.

Peretz Smolensken (1842-1885), the great Hebraist, was
acute enough to perceive that there was some kind of
connection between Mendelssohn and the Reform movement.
Smolensken was a staunch critic of Reform Judaism and the
Haskala. David Philipson (1862), who was one of the leaders
of the American Reform movement, did not quote Smolensken
by name, but in his book The Reform Movement in Judaism,
he takes to task those who frequently spoke of Mendelssohn
as an originator of the Reform movement. While it appears
that Philipson knew of the connection between the Bund der
Gerechten and the Reformers, apparently he knew nothing
about the Illuminati influence or connection with Reform, so he
cannot see the continuum of Mendelssohn to Reform. He thus
says that Mendelssohn made the Reform movement possible
"by giving the impulse to modern education among Jews, but a
religious reformer he was not." 39
Philipson goes on to say,

"Quite the contrary. He conformed strictly to every requirement
and demand of Rabbinical Judaism. His conception of
Judaism was that it is a Divine legislation; that since the
ceremonial law was revealed by God, it has potency and must
be observed until it shall be repealed by another revelation."



It is rather interesting to see that for Philipson, a devout
advocate for the revolutionary overthrow of Jewish values,
Mendelssohn is too religious a personality for him to swallow,
which again bears out how insidious the Illuminati were in
advocating creeping changes in religion.

Smolensken's evaluation is most perceptive, because he
sees through the thin veil of Mendelssohn quite clearly. Even
Christian writers immediately saw in the publication of
Mendelssohn's Jerusalem that if Judaism had no dogmas but
only laws, it was no religion, but only a political system.
Schechter, Geiger's disciple; over one hundred years after
Mendelssohn, and who was also a tool of the Communist
Conspiracy, decided he could even capitalize on this when he
wrote an essay entitled The Dogma of Dogmalessness, in
which he takes people such as Mendelssohn to task for
claiming that Judaism has no dogmas. With such writings,
Schechter hoped to gather around him and to find an attraction
for more religious groups of Jews who would be enticed into
further "enlightenment." 40

The question that remains is: "Is it possible to be a Jew and
ignore dogma?" In the structure of Judaism, there are among
the 613 commandments of the Torah, philosophical
commandments. Judaism is structured so that if a person were
to mentally reject God or the dogma that the Torah is of Divine
authority, that several Jewish laws will be violated, including
prohibitions of idolatry and blasphemy, as, for example, in the
Book of Numbers where it is stated (15:31) "If a person has
spurned the word of the Lord, that person should be cut off
from his people." This means that to deny one word of the
Torah as being of Divine origin makes one culpable for this
sin. Judaism does not differentiate between agnosticism and
atheism. To deny God's Torah is to deny God. 41 Furthermore,
the Rabbis decreed that concerning three cardinal sins is
death to be preferred over life. They are:



1 . Idolatry.

2. Prohibited sexual intercourse.

3. Murder of an innocent person.

In defining idolatry, the Rabbis delineated certain
philosophical commandments that fell under this category. The
Rabbis did not regard Christians, for example, as idolaters, for
it has been well articulated in Judaism that the concept of the
Trinity is not idolatrous for a non-Jew, since non-Jews were
never given any specific commandments prohibiting belief in a
multi-faceted deity. 42 However, with regard to the Jews, the
Torah proclaims (Deut. 6:4) "Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God.
the Lord is One." Judaism regarded the commandment to unify
God as a commandment to be binding exclusively on Jews.
Therefore, Jews throughout the Middle Ages chose death
rather than forced conversion to Christianity. Judaism officially
regarded Christians as not being idolatrous, but Jews who
convert to Christianity are considered as idolaters.

The Muslim philosophers declared that the Torah was not
an authentic revelation, but their religion spoke of one God —
Allah. Again, Judaism regarded the denial of the authentic
revelation of the Torah by Islam as non-idolatrous, for non-
Jews were not included in the commandments concerning the
blasphemy of the Torah. For the Jews this would be idolatry.
Therefore, they chose death rather than conversion to Islam.

Judaism is a non-proselytizing faith and, therefore, has no
missionaries, for intrinsic in the belief in Judaism was that non-
Jews could achieve salvation if they led moral lives. In
Talmudic verbiage, "the righteous of the world have a share in
the hereafter." And it was conceived that the Jew was to be a
priesthood to serve the nations of the world, to achieve a
moral life based on universal morality as conceived in the
Noahide laws.



Ironically, we find that Judaism has more in common with
Christianity than the new ideology that Mendelssohn was
seeking to force upon Judaism.

Both Christianity and Judaism hold that there was an
authentic revelation at Mount Sinai. The difference of opinion
between the two religions was whether this revelation was
supplemented. Judaism maintains that the revelation was
binding for all time, and Christianity maintains that it was
supplemented and changed at a later date. Hence the term
"New Testament," adopted by Christianity, which was sup-
posed to supplant the "Old Testament," a term which the
believing Jew could never accept. What Mendelssohn was
trying to foster were concepts that would undermine the
dogmatic foundation of Judaism, so much so that one could
maintain that he denied the Divine revelation of the Torah and
still be called a Jew.

Mendelssohn was playing religious "hide and go seek." He
was addressing himself to the semi-educated classes of Jews.
He was saying that the ceremonial laws were revealed and the
philosophical laws were not, while any one who was well-
grounded in Jewish law knew there was an entire body of
Jewish law called Hilchot Dayot, laws dealing with concepts
and philosophies, such as the love of God, His existence,
repentance, revelation, humility, etc.

Mendelssohn became an object of derision among the
Rabbis, who would not cease from castigating him.
Smolensken considers Mendelssohn as a central figure for
revolution. In his Hatoeh Bedarkai Hachaim , 43 (He Who Errs in
the Ways of Life) he refers to him as follows:

"He was a merchant and not a Rabbi, and neither was he well
learned in Jewish studies. As a merchant, he sold his people
and his faith... Publicly he embraced everything and secretly
he gave everything away for nothing."

Mendelssohn was a "con artist" of the first order. He was
telling the Jews to move out of the ghetto only by acquiring the



culture of the country, but he was implying that the culture of
the country was incompatible with authentic Judaism and

For centuries Sephardic Jews had not known of a ghetto
and had acquired the culture of their country, and had
produced men who in their lifetime had succeeded in keeping
synthesized the scientific with the religious without
contradiction. Some of the great role models of this religious
cultural community were the great Spanish-Portuguese Jewish
philosophers, who included the great physician, philosopher
and Rabbinical authority Maimonides; Gersonides, pioneer in
the development of navigational instruments, a noted
astronomer and Biblical commentator; and Nachmanides. All
that was now needed was for some successful movement to
paint the picture that a cultured individual cannot be religious,
as Geiger was successful in doing, and two things could

Jews could become irreligious and cultured, or they could
be steadfastly religious and withdrawn from society around
them, and become so paralyzed as to be rendered useless in
their impact upon general society.

Unfortunately, entire communities of Jews were so
suspicious of culture and secularism as a result of what
Mendelssohn began that they raised entire generations in a
strict parochial environment, to such an extent that they
erroneously conceived that Torah study should be taught
"pure" without any higher secular education. This view still
persists among some Jews today who refuse to send their
children to college.

Unfortunately, the success of the Marxist ideological
secular conspiracy has been so great that even the Christian
community has proliferated in recent years many of its own
schools of higher education, such as Ambassador College and
Bob Jones University, where they could insulate their young
people from radical ideologies and immorality.



What those Jews who adopted the isolationist stance to
secular culture were doing was actually capitulating to what
Mendelssohn, the Illuminati, the Bund and Marxists wanted
them to do all along. They were, through withdrawal, bowing
out of sight and contact with the real world, and thus the
"elimination of the opiate" and the overthrow of religion could
be accomplished that much more quickly.

Perhaps the greatest single voice against this conspiracy
was that of Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch, contemporary of
Abraham Geiger, who fought successfully these machinations
by adopting the philosophy of Torah Im Derech Eretz — Torah
and Culture. Thus the followers of S. R. Hirsch brought up
their children to excel in fields of secular endeavor and in
religious observance. However, Hirsch's approach lacked
mystical elements. This attitude was also adopted by many
communities in Eastern Europe who trained their children in
the Haskala and educated them in literature, and pointed out
the pitfall of surrendering eternal and authentic religious values
to the Haskala. The varied attitudes on this subject and a
philosophy of approach were causes of bitter contention
between some Chasidic dynasties. The Munkatch dynasty of
Hungary, for example, condemned any pursuit of secular
education and urged an iconoclastic existence upon its
members. The Lubavitch sect urged complete intellectual
immersion in Western culture with no compromise whatsoever
upon Torah values, but it encouraged some of its students if
they so desired not to pursue a university education. The
Lubavitcher Rebbe of today, Rabbi Menachem Mendel
Schneerson, has a Ph.D. degree, and engages in dialogue
with university professors and college students, holding official
intellectual colloquia with them in his Brooklyn headquarters.

Another Chasidic group, which chagrined the as-
similationists, was the Rizhiner dynasty. The Rizhiner group
was founded by Rabbi Israel Friedman of Rizhin. His son
Abraham founded another dynasty in Galicia ... the dynasty of



Sadigere. Sadigere has been described as an unusual
combination of high mysticism high living, Messianism, high
fashion and a splendid regal way of life.

Yeshiva University in New York City is one of the great
institutions that keeps alive the notion of the synthesis of
cultural, secular values with authentic Jewish practice. It is
interesting to note on this score how the writer Chaim Potok, in
his book The Chosen, refers to his fictitious university (which
really is Yeshiva University). He calls it Samson R. Hirsch
University, because in essence it is this school that carries on
the heritage and teachings of Rabbi Samson R. Hirsch.

In his manner, popularizing the concept that the
philosophical and ethical teachings of Judaism are those of
reason and hence universal, Mendelssohn was paving the way
for the supremacy of reason over the spiritual-emotional
involvements with Torah and Judaism. This could eventually
force the breakdown of religious differentiations. The Illuminati
had not only wanted reason to take the place of religious
authority, but wanted Christians to gradually become atheists.

It is interesting to note, as we pointed out before, that
Judaism, which has no missionaries, did not change its views
concerning non-Jews who worship the Trinity. However, one
does not have to be too brilliant to realize that a religious
Christian who did become a pure monotheist could be so cut
off from his heritage and its authoritarian hold upon him that he
could eventually erode his religious convictions to atheism.
This type of philosophy was even sold in later years to Jewish
immigrants who were in effect told to melt into the great
melting pot of America by throwing off the religious way of life.
What in reality happened was that a way of life was being sold
to these immigrants as the American way of life, when it was
nothing more than Mendelssohnian assimilation.

As for Mendelssohn's goal to establish Judaism as only a
religion and the concept of loyalty to it as compatible with a
national state, let us consider the following: To the religious



personality, his religion is unique and his way of life. However,
in telling such a person that his religion was just another
religion alongside many others, the religious personality is
diminished. This is called "comparative religion." In fostering
such studies, one could eventually lose respect for his own
religion, and regard it as another religion among the religions
of the world. Loyalty to the national state, according to
Mendelssohn, could only be achieved when faiths were
regarded as religions and not as ways of life.

It was conceived that in years to come, the Platonic order
would increasingly become the way of life of the world. As this
evolved it would be necessary for the State to demand the
surrender of religious values in the name of the State. When
Mendelssohn was writing about the separation of Church and
State in his Jerusalem, what he really meant was eventual
subversion of the Church to the State, and not separation.
Under such a system adultery could be tolerated, abortion
would be commended, and homosexuals would prosper.

It is interesting to note that under Napoleon, the
compatibility of Judaism with the State was translated into
action. Napoleon convened a court of Jewish law, a Sanhedrin
of Jewish leaders, in 1807, consisting of eighty delegates,
forty-six of whom were rabbis. They affirmed that Jews could
participate in all professions, and that while rabbis could not
officiate at mixed marriages, the decision of civil courts had
priority over religious courts. This meant that mixed marriages
that were prohibited according to Jewish law between Jews
and non-Jews would be foisted upon Jewish communities
against their will.

One may now justly ask, is there evidence that
Mendelssohn was really thinking in terms of a Platonic
society? And if this be true, how does one explain the fact that
Mendelssohn was supposed to be a religious Jew in his
private life? The answer to these questions is that
Mendelssohn was extremely interested in Plato, and that his



so-called religious observances were nothing more than a
facade because of the six children that he fathered, all
converted to Christianity after his death, except for two.

But now let us turn to some of the documents of these
occurrences. The most comprehensive book on Mendelssohn
ever appearing in print is one that has just been published in
1973 by Professor Alexander Altmann of Brandeis University,
entitled Moses Mendelssohn: A Biographical Study. 45 This
900-page work, which is an unusual tribute to Dr. Altmann and
his thorough research, contains a fantastic amount of
comprehensive information on Mendelssohn. Dr. Altmann has
traveled to Germany to obtain some original manuscripts with
regard to Moses Mendelssohn and his life. Of particular
interest to us is the collection of letters and notes from Moses
Mendelssohn, which Dr. Altmann refers to as the Marburg File.

The Marburg File is a collection of letters and notes from
Mendelssohn to Nicolai that was discovered during the 1930's
in Marburg. 46 From this file, much can be gathered concerning
the relationship of Nicolai and Mendelssohn. We learn from a
letter which Mendelssohn sent on July 5, 1763, to Isaak Iselin,
that he had translated three books of Plato's Republic into
German. 47 Nicolai was quite enthusiastic about publishing this

In our previous discussions we touched briefly on the
Schiff-Rothschild interrelationships, and members of the Bund
der Gerechten. Max Warburg, for example, ran the M. N.
Warburg Company in Frankfurt, and was a major financier of
the Bolshevik Revolution. His bank financed Adolf Hitler. His
brother Paul married Nina Loeb, daughter of Solomon Loeb of
Kuhn, Loeb and Company. The other brother Felix married
Frieda Schiff, Jacob Schiff's daughter. Incidentally, the Schiffs
and Rothschilds shared a double house in Frankfurt. 48 What is
rather significant as implied by Altmann is that the translation
of Plato's Republic was never published. If this was the case,
then for whom was it prepared? Was it prepared for th

Illuminati? Altmann, in a footnote, says of the fragments of
Mendelssohn's translation, "They are in the possession of
Mr. Eric Warburg, who kindly placed photo-copies of them at
my disposal." Eric Warburg is the surviving son of Max

Is it mere coincidence that Eric Warburg should be heir to
this translation, or is it a hand-me-down from the Illuminati? It
is interesting to note that long before Mendelssohn ever
conceived of translating the Torah into German, the Republic
was on his mind. Was it because Mendelssohn considered its
Communist blueprint far more important than the Torah?

How did the Mendelssohn-Nicolai relationship evolve? In a
letter written in May of 1756 by Mendelssohn to Lessing, he
states, "I have tried to rid myself of as many old acquaintances
as possible, except for Prof. Sulzer and Herr Nicolai." The
letter states as follows:

"For the time being, I have become unfaithful to meditative
[grubelnden] metaphysics. I visit the Herr Nicolai very often in
his garden. (I truly love him, dearest friend, and I believe that
our friendship will thereby gain, because in him I love your true
friend.) We read poems, Herr Nicolai declaims to me his own
work, I sit in judgment as a critic, admire, laugh, censure until
nightfall. Then we once more remember you and part
company, contented with our day's work. I am making a fairly
good start toward becoming a bel esprit. Who knows whether
one day I shall not write verse? Madam Metaphysics may
forgive me. She asserts that friendship rests on the identity of
[people's] inclinations, and I find that, on the contrary, identity
of inclinations may, in reverse, rest on friendship. Your
friendship and Nicolai's has tempted me to withdraw part of
my love from that venerable matron and to give it to belles-
lettres. Our friend has even elected me a contributor to his
Bibliothek, but I am afraid that his choice will prove an
unfortunate one."

The garden of which Mendelssohn speaks is located at
Spandauerstrasse 68. Nicolai occupied it from 1755 to 1757,



and Mendelssohn made that address his residence from 1 762
until his death. 51

It is interesting to note that Mendelssohn did not translate
Plato until after he met Nicolai. It is also interesting to note that
Altmann calls attention to the change that may have come
about in the life of Karl Friedrich Bahrdt (1741-1792), who was
active in the Illuminati. The change that took place in Bahrdt's
life is reflected in some passages in Altmann's book.
Apparently before the Illuminati was formed, Bahrdt was a
conservative, believing Christian. Fie was most disturbed by
Mendelssohn. In his The True Christian in Solitude, he
accused the Berlin Academy, around 1761, of having gotten
Mendelssohn to attack the Christian religion. 52 Nearly two
years after the formation of the Illuminati, the March 17, 1778
issue of Freywillige Beitrage, published in Hamburg, carried an
article by Johann M. Goeze, accusing Lessing's atheistic
theological writings to be those "of the notorious Karl Friedrich
Bahrdt, against whom the Imperial Court Council in Vienna
had begun to take action." Lessing was a close colleague of

G. H. G. von Giusti (1705-1771), one of the fathers of
political science in Germany, denounced the Literatur Briefe of
Nicolai, Lessing and Mendelssohn, and because of these
charges, the Literatur Briefe were notoriously put on the
censor's index of March 17, 1762. However, the ban was lifted
a few days later. 53

As for the attempts, described by Robison, of the Illuminati
to subvert the Freemasons in Germany, Altmann further
makes mention that when Lessing spent time in Berlin in the
early part of 1776, "he discussed his theory of the origin of the
Freemasons with Nicolai, who was an eminent expert in this
field, and Nicolai in turn frequently discussed it with
Mendelssohn." Altmann states categorically that Mendelssohn
had never made an effort to enter the Order. It may be
possible that at this point Mendelssohn had no idea that



Lessing and Nicolai were in a process of attempting to subvert
the Freemasons to the aims of the Illuminati. 54

If the Platonic State were to reign supreme, then perhaps
the first area that would break down in practical ceremonial
Jewish law would be the process of excommunication. The
rules of excommunication in Jewish law state that if a Bet Din,
which is a duly constituted court of Jewish law, summons one
to appear before it and he fails to appear, he could be
excommunicated. 55 If, as some people alleged, Mendelssohn
was such a stickler about practical observances, why did he
then write the following piece regard to excommunication,
which literally breaks the back of Rabbinical authority?

"In accordance with it [the principle of the separation of church
membership and citizenship], the civil authorities should never
permit a Rabbi to pronounce against a member of his
community such a ban as excludes him from all social contact
with the rest of his coreligionists outside the synagogue,
degrades him in their eyes, interferes with his business, or
even exposes him to persecution by the mob. It appears that
fines imposed for transgressing presumed commandments
from heaven are likewise improper. The wrong use of power in
imposing these penalties that can be made and, in fact, has
often been made by Rabbis makes necessary for the
government to keep the exercise of this power under constant
supervision. When punishing the Jew who is a transgressor,
this power must never punish the man and the citizen. Nothing
but exclusion from ecclesiastical society and its benefits
should follow from a violation of its precepts." 5 * 7

Dr. M. C. Weinberger 57 in his Seter Vesayif (Book and
Sword) records some of the Rabbinical polemics against
Mendelssohn's Biur that emanated from such notables as
Rabbi Ezekiel Landau. Weinberger is astonished as to why the
Rabbis would object to Mendelssohn's translation of the Torah
when it was known that Saadya Gaon (882-942) translated
Torah into Arabic. Actually the Rabbinical leadership knew that
Mendelssohn was a conspirator, and understood what he was



up to. In their own manner they went around condemning
Mendelssohn indirectly, for they feared that direct accusations
of Mendelssohn could lead to recriminations and persecutions
of their people, especially since it was clear to them that both
Frederick II in Germany Joseph II in Austria, as well as other
monarchs under whom the Jews were living, were involved
with Illuminati. They moved about very cautiously, and were
circumspect in their criticisms so as not cause any friction
between the ruling powers and members of the Jewish

Of Mendelssohn's eight children, five were boys and three
were girls. The three boys surviving were Joseph, Abraham
and Nathan. One son by name of Chaim died in infancy
(February 19-April 3,1766) and another son Mendel died when
he was six in 1775. Eisenstein and Jospe 58 state that all the
children except one (Joseph) converted to Christianity, while
Altmann and EJ state that all the children except two resisted
conversion. 59 Altmann and EJ are correct. One daughter,
Dorothy, left her first husband, Jewish banker Simon Veit, to
marry the romantic poet Schlegel. She first turned Protestant
and then Catholic. Another daughter Henrietta turned Catholic
after her mother died in 1812. The famous composer Felix
Mendelssohn (1809-1847) was son of Abraham who
converted in 1822. Felix was so ashamed of his Jewish
ancestry that he tried to have his last name changed, only to
discover ironically that people were flocking to his concerts
because of the memory of his illustrious grandfather

One may ask whether Mendelssohn, who had been set up
as a role model, could have planned the conversion of his
children as part of a conspiracy after his death. If one knows
these groups well, it is not so they far-fetched to believe that
this is a possibility. One can well ask, "Wouldn't his wife do
anything to stop the initial conversion from happening?"
Apparently she may have done nothing, for she was of the
Guggenheim family, which was part of the inner circle of the



Bund and may also have supported the Illuminati in its time.
She was also tutored by Bode of the Illuminati.

We have noted that the followers of Rabbi S. R. Hirsch
were able to partially foil the Haskala in Germany. However,
his formulation of Torah and Culture was lacking a mystical
element that could have been more conducive to further
success. Why did it lack the mystical element? Mendelssohn's
impact on German Jewry was so great that by the time Rabbi
Hirsch came on the scene, it was virtually impossible to
introduce mystical elements into religious creed for fear they
would be considered as superstition. It was only in the 1930's
that Hirsch's, grandson, Rabbi Isaac Breuer, finally attempted
to officially inject the mystical element into the theology of ob-
servant Hirschian School German Jews. This is discussed by
Professor Scholem in a chapter entitled The Politics of
Mysticism; Isaac Breuer's "New Kuzari," his The Messianic
Idea in Judaism. 61

Rabbi Ezekiel Landau's public pronouncements against
Mendelssohn, together with that of others, gathered
momentum, and in the halls of learning throughout Germany
and Europe, Mendelssohn's name and family became a
subject of derision and a curse. It is both to the deep prophetic
insights and foresight of the Rabbis that they already predicted
over one hundred and fifty years before the actual events that
a holocaust was going to fall upon the Jewish people. They
cited the Talmud in Tractate Sotah, 62 which asks the question
as to why Samson's eyes were blinded in the city of Gaza.
"Samson's corruption began in Gaza. Therefore, he was pun-
ished in Gaza." As it is written (Judges 16:1) "And Samson
went to Gaza and saw there a whore." Therefore, he was
punished in Gaza, as it is written, "And the Philistines seized
him and put out his eyes and brought him down to Gaza" (Ibid
v.21). The Rabbis compared Mendelssohn and his Berlin circle
to the whore, and warned that if Israel were to be tempted to



Berlin, then the destruction of Israel would come from Berlin,
and so it was. 63

Mendelssohn was readily accepted by those who
considered themselves the vanguard of a new era. Professor
Gershom Scholem states that the followers of Shabbetai Tzvi
and Jacob Frank enthusiastically ran after Mendelssohn.
Indeed, Scholem further states that these people intended to
use the Haskala for their own Sabbatian ends. According to

"The leaders of the 'School of Mendelssohn,' who were neither
Sabbatians themselves, of course, nor under the influence of
mysticism at all, to say nothing of mystical heresy, found ready
recruits for their cause in Sabbatian circles, where the world of
Rabbinic Judaism had already been completely destroyed
from within, quite independently of the efforts of secularist
criticism. Those who had survived the ruin were now open to
any alternative or wind of change; and so, their 'mad visions'
behind them, they turned their energies and hidden desires for
a more positive life to assimilation and the Haskala, two forces
that accomplished without paradoxes, indeed without religion
at all, what they, the members of the 'accursed sect,' had
earnestly striven for in a stormy contention with truth, carried
on in the half-light of a faith pregnant with paradoxes." 64

A rather interesting custom started to spread like a plague
in Mendelssohn's time from the Illuminati and Haskala and
became a practice among the early Reform. This was
pressure to place a symbol of Illumination into synagogues
throughout the world, unbeknown to the masses, It is stated in
the Book of Exodus that God commanded the Children of
Israel to take pure olive oil "to make a continuous light." This is
what appears in the Hebrew text as Ner Tamid (Exodus
27:20). This Ner Tamid was to be "in the Tent of Meeting
outside the dividing curtain which is over the Testimony. (Ibid.
v.21 )."

The Eternal Light was kept up in both Temples in
Jerusalem. However, with the destruction of the Second



Temple and the dispersion of Jewry, the practice was
discontinued. There were some synagogues that continued
the custom of maintaining an Eternal Light, on the western
side of the synagogue, opposite the Ark . 65 In the eighteenth
century, the practice of placing the Eternal Light in the
synagogue was observed among Sephardic Spanish-
Portuguese Jews, who placed the Ner Tamid on the western
walls of their synagogues. Ashkenazic Jewry and the Eastern
European Chasidic Jews did not have a Ner Tamid in their
synagogues. They felt that the Ner Tamid was to be held in
reserve for the future restoration of the Temple. The
Enlighteners started to push the practice of introducing the Ner
Tamid to be on the eastern wall of the synagogue, right in front
of the Ark where the Torah is held. The Torah commentary of
Rabbi Samson R. Hirsch makes mention that the Eternal Light
symbolizes illumination and the clarity of the mind. However,
he was aware of what was going on, for he sates further in his
commentary , 66

"The human mind, turning towards the Torah and receiving
enlightenment from the Torah, has constantly to be kept
conscious that it stands outside the Torah. The Torah is
something that has been given to it, not produced by it. It has
to draw and increase its knowledge and enlightenment out of
the Torah, but never to take its own light into the realm of the
Torah to alter or reform it. It has always to keep itself
conscious of the covering ... and should the need arise, to
preserve it against any tendency of the human mind, which
misjudging its true position, could turn against the inviolability
of the Torah, and, instead of sitting as a disciple at the feet of
the Torah, dare to assume an arrogant mastery over it."

Yes, Hirsch understood only too well what was being done,
and he knew what Illumination meant in his day and what it
was to become.

We shall now turn our attention to the Frankists, co-
conspirators of the Illuminati, Reform and the Haskala.





As for that prophet or dream-divider, he shall be put to death,
for he urged disloyalty to the Lord your God ... to make you
stray from the path that the Lord your God commanded you to

(Deuteronomy 13:6)

Pray for the stability of governments. For if it were not for the
fear of governments each man would cannibalize his fellow

(Mishna Avot 3:2)

The question that should be asked is, "Was there any
rational basis for the men of the Illuminati to behave as they
did and to set into motion revolutions, upheavals and
conspiracies?" Did they not realize that they were performing
evil, and where, pray tell, did they receive an inspiration for
carrying out their hideous tasks without falling apart by
confrontation with their own consciences, especially since
these men as a group were exceptionally wealthy and of acute
intellect, and far above the average intelligence of the common
criminal. Furthermore, was there anything in their philosophy
or make-up that led them to lead a double type of life, indeed a
schizophrenic existence?

It is this writer's contention that throughout history the
Communist idea has always existed. Indeed it even preceded
Plato's Republic, regarded as the supreme blueprint for a



Communist society. The question was whether with the
political fortunes of the hour, the opportunity would lend itself
for kindred spirits not only to conspire towards these goals, but
to effectuate their plan into action. Certainly this was the case
when the Hellenists fought the Hasmoneans, and were
defeated by the Maccabees. But in analyzing the conflict,
Judah Maccabee was not just fighting with his troops against a
foreign government; he was fighting subversion in his own
country initiated by the super-rich. The Tobiad family, for
example, after acquiring fantastic fortunes, decided to turn
their attention to a field in which they previously had little
interest, that of politics. Having done that, they were
determined to bring a new order in the land of Israel.

Again we find that Mazdak (sixth century) 67 arose in Persia
and carried out a fight to overthrow artisans and entrepreneurs
in his day, wishing to bring a cooperative society and a new
order. But the Persians defeated him, and incidentally, were
led by the Jewish community "Prince" Mar Zutra, who
organized middle class and Persian society, and checked
Mazdak and his mobs.

Before the advent of the Illuminati there were tremendous
upheavals taking place of a political and religious nature. The
Jesuits had been dethroned, and were not restored to their
former position within the church until 1814, called the
Restoration. What was known as the suppression of the
Jesuits began in 1773, which is three years before Weishaupt
founded the Illuminati. The Jesuits were accused of building a
power base for themselves within the Catholic Church,
especially since royal confessors were usually Jesuits. The
Jesuits were also constantly involved with in-fighting within the
Church, such as with the Dominican and Franciscan orders.
The Scientific community and the Enlighteners did not like the
Jesuits and, furthermore, there was extreme friction
developing between the Jesuits and the academic community,
especially with the Sorbonne in Paris.



In 1759, the order had been banished from Portugal. It was
in 1769 that Clement XIV became Pope, and he expressed the
view that "sometimes we must cut down the mast to have a
ship." On July 21, 1773, three years before the founding of the
Illuminati, he issued his "Brief of Suppression." Then strangely
enough, he said, "For the sake of peace and because the
society can no longer attain the aims for which it was founded,
and on secret grounds which we enclose in our heart, we
suppress the said society." No one to this very day knows
exactly what these secret grounds were, but Saint Alphonsus
Ligouri declared that it was due to a plot of Jansenists and
infidels" or in other words, Illuminati types and mystical radi-
cals, that had infiltrated and dominated the Jesuits. 6 ®

In the case of the Jewish religion, the community had been
exposed to a very dangerous man, one Jacob Frank (1726-
1791). Frank's story begins with Shabbetai Tzvi (1626-1676).
Shabbetai Tzvi claimed that he was the Messiah, and that he
would deliver the Jews from their oppressors and return them
to their homeland. In his day, over a million Jews from every
walk of life proclaimed him and hailed him as their deliverer.
As time went on Shabbetai became more militant in his
Messianic pronouncements and, as the "Messiah," started to
proclaim that certain aspects of Jewish law are no longer
binding. Fie also began to speak out against the authority of
the Talmud. As his renunciation of certain aspects of Judaism
became more pronounced, so did he begin to lose some of his
initial followers.

Shabbetai married a prostitute named Sarah, who had been
an orphan of the Polish excesses of the Chmielnitsky
massacres that were part of the seventeenth century Cossack
rebellion against the Polish middle class. This marriage was
consummated to conform to a legend that the Messiah would
marry an unchaste bride.

Shabbetai was born in Turkey, but he moved to the Holy
Land where he gained a tremendous following, and



announced that he would march against Constantinople to
oppose the Sultan. About this time he was officially
excommunicated by the Rabbis of his generation. The Sultan
did not wish to make a martyr of Shabbetai, but threw him into
prison. This only strengthened his movement and hardened
his followers. At this point the Sultan gave Shabbetai a choice
between death or conversion to become a Muslim and
freedom. Shabbetai chose conversion and freedom. Had he
not, he probably would have gone down in Jewish history as a
sainted martyr with a tremendous following. 69

At the time of his conversion, thousands of his followers
became disillusioned and abandoned the movement.
However, there were still some stubborn followers who
believed in him and, of course rationalized their following him
by inventing some type of rationale. Hence the movement
gave rise to a special Sabbatian sect in Turkey known as the
Donmeh, The order maintained that the Messiah would have
to sin before he could bring redemption, and this provided a
rationale for believing in a Jewish Messiah who was of Islam.

Many years after Shabbetai Tzvi's death, the Donmeh
continued to exist and to grow. Jacob Frank encountered the
Donmeh while he was a traveling salesman in Turkey. He
refined the concept of the Messiah sinning by urging members
of the movement to sin, reasoning that if salvation could be
gotten through purity, it could also be achieved through sin.
Gershom Scholem, the great Kabbala authority, has
elaborated on this theme in such writings as his Hebrew
Mitzvah haBa'ah baAverah, which was translated into an
article that appeared in Commentary in 1971 70 entitled The
Holiness of Sin; as well as a chapter in his Messianic Idea in
Judaism entitled Redemption Through Sin. One of the ways
that the Frankists indulged in their sin was to engage in sexual
orgies. The Donmeh in Turkey officially converted to Islam in
1683, and the Frankists in Europe to Catholicism in 1759.
However, their conversion to these religions was for the



purpose of imitating the Sabbatian role models as well as for
subverting and destroying these faiths.

As for the danger of the Frankist movement and its reckless
revolutionary policies, Gershom Scholem gives more than
ample testimony, and we shall quote liberally from his writings.
Fie says of the Frankist sect,

"Flere, then we have all the prerequisites for the sectarian
disposition, for the sect serves the Illuminati as both a rallying
point for their own kind and a refuge from the incompre-
hension of the carnal and unenlightened masses. The
sectarians regard themselves as the vanguard of a new
world..." 71

The idea was,

"that the King Messiah was to give 'a new Torah' and that the
commandments of the Law (Mitzvot) were to be abrogated in
Messianic times... Even those visionaries who dreamt through
the ages of a new Word of God in a redeemed world did not,
in fact, particularly connect this idea with the activities of the
Messiah himself, and it was not until it was seized upon by the
new 'Marranic' doctrine that its latent explosive power was
revealed." 72

Therefore, Scholem says of Frank that "he will always be
remembered as one of the most frightening phenomena in the
whole of Jewish history: a religious leader who was a corrupt
individual." 73

Scholem summarizes the five distinguishing beliefs of
radical Sabbatianism which are essentially beliefs that the, 74

1. Apostasy of the Messiah is a necessity.

2. Real Torah is not the real Torah, and must be violated by
conforming to another superior, alien mystical Torah
called the Torah of Atzilut (Aristocracy).

3. First Cause and the God of Israel are not the same, the
former being the God of rational philosophers and the
latter the God of religion.



4. Godhead takes human form, which allowed for leaders
of the sect to be incarnated into that Godhead, from
Shabbetai Tzvi through to Frank and others.

5. "believer" must not appear to be as he really is.

The last belief justified its followers' pursuit of the double
type of life that they led. One could appear to be a religious
Jew on the outside and in reality be a Frankist. For though the
Donmeh officially converted to Islam and the Frankists to
Catholicism, the great majority of Frankists who outwardly
appeared to embrace Judaism integrated themselves into the
Jewish community. Despite the fact that they were all
outwardly religious, they still cherished as their goal "the
annihilation of every religion and positive system of belief," and
they dreamed "of a general revolution that would sweep away
the past in a single stroke so that the world might be rebuilt."

Of the revolutionary philosophy of the Frankists and its
mystical symbolism, Gershom Scholem writes elsewhere in his
Kabbalah and Its Symbolism: 77

"This Life, however, is not the harmonious life of all things in
bond with God, a world ordered by divine law and submissive
to His authority, but something very different, utterly free.
Fettered by no law or authority, this 'Life' never ceases to
produce forms and to destroy what it has produced. It is the
anarchic promiscuity of all living things. Into this bubbling
caldron, this continuum of destruction, the mystic plunges. To
him it is the ultimate human experience. For Frank, anarchic
destruction represented all the Luciferian radiance, all the
positive tones and overtones, of the word 'Life.' The nihilistic
mystic descends into the abyss in which the freedom of living
things is born; he passes through all the embodiments and
forms that come his way, committing himself to none; and not
content with rejecting and abrogating all values and laws, he
tramples them underfoot and desecrates them, in order to
attain the elixir of Life. In this radical interpretation of a symbol,
the life-giving element of mystical experience was combined
with its potential destructiveness. It goes without saying that,
from the standpoint of the community and its institutions, such



mysticism should have been regarded as demonic

possession. And it is indicative of one of the enormous

tensions that run through the history of Judaism that this most
destructive of all visions should have been formulated in its
most unrestrained form by one who rebelled against the
Jewish law and broke away from Judaism."

Jacob Frank preached his "Religious Myth of Nihilism" in
more than two thousand dogmatic sayings. One of the Frankist
cult's publications that has come into our possession is a book
entitled Book of the Words of the Lord, which Scholem

characterizes as "a mixture of primitive savagery and

putrescent morals." 78 The Frankists had a way of turning
around old homilies and sayings that were common among the
people, twisting them in their nihilistic "Torah of Atzilut." For
example, religious Jews at the beginning of the morning
service start their prayers with a series of thirteen benedictions
in which one thanks God for providing the necessities of life,
for clothing the unclothed, etc. Among these benedictions is
one that praises God for freeing those in captivity. The Hebrew
for this is matir asurim. In the Frankist cult the benediction was
pronounced, praising God as matir isurim, which means
permitting the prohibited. Similarly, they twisted around other
sayings. They would say, "the subversion of the Torah can
become its true fulfillment," and "great is a sin committed for its
own sake." 80

The Talmud states that the Messiah will come only in an
age that is completely guilty or completely innocent (Sanhedrin
98a). From this epigram the Frankists would state, "Since we
cannot all be saints, let us all be sinners." 81 Scholem goes on
to say that the blasphemous benediction "who permits the for-

"came to be considered by these radicals as the true ex-
pression of their feeling... To the anarchic religious feeling of
these new Jews, all the three great institutional religions have
no longer an absolute value." 82



How did all these revolutionary tendencies fit in with Reform
liberalism and Enlightenment? Scholem says that the
Frankists and the Donmeh remained in close contact even
after their formal apostasy. Most of the followers of Frank who
remained Jewish were concentrated in Bohemia, Moravia.
Hungary and Romania. Of them Scholem states,

"It was the influence of these elements who had not openly cut
themselves off from Rabbinical Judaism which, after the
French Revolution, became important in fostering the move-
ment towards Reform liberalism and Enlightenment in many
Jewish circles. Around 1850, a consciousness of this link
between Sabbatianism and reform was still alive in some
quarters. In circles close to the moderate reform movement, a
very remarkable and undoubtedly authentic tradition had it that
Aaron Chorin, the first pioneer of reformed Jewry in Hungary,
was in his youth a member of the Sabbatian group in Prague.
Prossnitz and Hamburg, both in the eighteenth century
centers of Sabbatian propaganda and the scene of bitter
struggles between the orthodox and the heretics or their
sympathizers, were among the chief strongholds of the
Reform movement in the beginning of the nineteenth century.
The sons of those Frankists in Prague who in 1800 still
pilgrimed to Offenbach, near Frankfort, the seat of Frank's
successors, and who educated their children in the spirit of
this mystical sect, were among the leaders, in 1832, of the first
"Reform" organization in Prague. The writings of Jonas Wehle
himself, the spiritual leader of these Prague mystics around
1800, already display an astonishing mixture of mysticism and
rationalism. Of his extensive writings an extremely interesting
commentary to the Talmudic Aggadoth is extant in manuscript,
from which it is clear that his particular pantheon had room for
Moses Mendelssohn and Immanuel Kant side by side with
Sabbatai Zevi and Isaac Luria. And as late as 1864, his
nephew, writing in New York, lengthily praises in his testament
his Sabbatian and Frankist ancestors as the standard-bearers
of the 'true Jewish faith,' i.e. , of a deeper spiritual
understanding of Judaism."



How did the Polish Rabbis attempt to eradicate the
Frankists? They stated, "it was obligatory for every pious Jew
to search and expose them." 84 The Rabbis had watched
Frank's sinister activities but could not muster sufficient proof
to excommunicate him. In 1752, he married a Bulgarian
Jewish woman named Channa. She was very beautiful, and
he utilized her, as was the custom among members of his
sect, to ensnare hundreds of men who had licentious affairs
with her, to build up the strength of his sect. But at one point
public pressure became so great in Turkey, that he was forced
to embark for Poland in 1755. By this time Channa had two
sons, Joseph and Jacob, and a daughter Eva. However, on
the 20th day of the Hebrew month of Sivan in 1756, in the city
of Satinow, the Rabbis formally excommunicated Frank and all
his followers. They prohibited any one from intermarrying with
any member of the sect. The great Rabbi Jacob Emden (1697-
1776), wrote in a letter that it was prohibited for any one to
have mercy on them.

The excommunication largely came about from an incident
in which some illustrious Rabbis, who were not too familiar
with this sect, were invited to a meeting by members of their
congregations, and when they were invited into a larger hall in
the city of Laskron to get recruits, the door was locked behind
them and a nude woman danced in, right in front of their faces.
The Rabbis then had sufficient evidence and witnesses to the
incident. At this meeting, Frank spoke of a revolution against
the government, and this led to his arrest by the police. He
was thereafter exiled from Poland. 85

Wherever the Frankists came, they left desolation and
despair in the Jewish communities. They instigated public
burnings of the Talmud. Thousands of books of the Talmud
were burned in the city of Kaminetz on the last day of the
Hebrew month Marach Shevan (Cheshvan) in 1 757. A chain of
Talmud burnings ensued in Lvov, Brodi and Zolkev, until the
persecutor, Bishop Dembowski, a befriender of Frank, died



suddenly on November 9,1757. The people saw this as the
hand of God.

The Frankists enticed women to leave their husbands and
to join their orgies. Families were broken up in the hundreds.
This is even more amazing considering the strong family life
that characterized the Jews in the small communities of
Podolia, Moravia, Poland, Flungary and Romania at that time.
They joined with Christian bigots in accusing the Jews of blood
libels, claiming that the Jews murdered Christian children and
used their blood for the Passover holiday. For example, in the
public disputation with the Rabbis in Lvov in 1 759, 86 they made
a public accusation of blood libel. Scholem is of the opinion
that they did this in a scheme to collaborate with bigoted
Catholic clergymen in order to wreak vengeance on their
Rabbinical persecutors. Scholem cites from the eminent
historian, Meir Balaban, a conversation which took place in
Lvov between Rabbi Chaim Rappaport and the Frankist
Eliezer Jezierzany who said, "Chaim, we have given you blood
for blood. You meant to make the shedding of our blood lawful,
and now you have been given blood for blood!" 87

In one case of blood libel, in the small shtetl of Villovich, the
Frankists took revenge on the local Rabbi of the town by
dressing one of their women up as the Rabbi's wife. The
impersonation was perfect. She appeared before the local
priest and said that she saw the Rabbi kill a Christian child for
Passover. Because of this incident, the Rabbi and all the
members of his congregation were killed after a brief trial. The
Rabbi's wife and his five remaining children were tortured into
accepting Christianity. 88

In 1759, when the Frankists officially converted to
Catholicism, Frank was baptized in the Warsaw Cathedral with
no less a personage than Emperor Augustus III as godfather.
A year later he was accused of heresy and was thrown into the
Citadel of Czenstokova. Fie was released in 1773 only by the
Russian conquest on the eve of the first partition of Poland.



The reason why Frank was thrown into prison was because
it was discovered that the Godhead of the Frankist cult was
not the Trinity, but included members of the sect.

The author has come across a very rare edition of a book
entitled Jerusalem: A Treatise on Ecclesiastical Authority in
Judaism, by Moses Mendelssohn, published in 1838 by
M. Samuels. 89 On page 257 of Volume I occurs the following
note, which is reproduced herein its entirety:

"The chiefs of the sect carry about them a badge or medal, by
which they make themselves known to one another and to the
members. It is of the size of a half-crown piece, and coined
like the Abraham coin mentioned in the Talmud. On one side it

mpn ipr
nPinm nnn

and on the other, the letters



evidently the initials of npxi pTlT m» OimN but under-
neath there appear the same letters again


T, 1

with this difference that the CD is a Shin, and not a Sin, and in-
stead of the Resh there is a Daleth. Thus read:

’ptimxT lnnvnntu ,frPN

the four chiefs of the sect. Elijah the Prophet, Redeemer;
Sabbathai, Messiah; Jonathan (Eibeschutz) — (This proves
how justly he was accused of heresy) — and Dobrushki, i.e.,
Frank; which latter name he only adopted in Germany, as did



his two nephews that of Frey, under which they resided at

Paris, where they were guillotined in the days of Terror,

We shall now explain the meaning of this fascinating

According to legend, Abraham minted his own coins
containing on one side a Hebrew inscription shown in the
footnote, which means "an old man, an old lady, a young man
and a virgin. "On the opposite side of the coin were the letters
that were Hebrew name initials for those whom this epigram
represented. They were, reading from right to left, "Abraham,
Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca." On the coinage of the Frankists,
the lettering similarly appeared, excepting that the letter Shin
for Sarah which in Hebrew is designated by a dot on the left
for an "s" sound had the dot on the right designating the "sh"
sound, which stood for Shabbetai. The Resh, which stood for
Rebecca, was replaced by the Hebrew letter Daleth (which
bears some graphic resemblance to Resh) which stood for

The names on the Frankist coin represented Elijah the
Prophet, Shabbetai, Rabbi Jonathan Eibeschutz (1690-1764),
and Jacob Frank in the alias of Dobrushka. The latter two
names require some further explanation.

Rabbi Jonathan Eibeschutz was a Frankist personality who
led a double life. Secretly he was a Sabbatian, but outwardly
he assumed the life of a great Rabbinical scholar and Decisor.
It was the great Gaonic sage, Rabbi Jacob Emden (1697-
1776), who exposed Eibeschutz as a Sabbatian. The basis for
the expose began in 1751 after Rabbi Eibeschutz had left
Metz in France in 1750 for Altona in Germany. Emden based
his charges on five amulets that had been issued to various
individuals in the Metz community. 90 Certified copies of the
amulets were transmitted by scribes of the Jewish community
and sealed by a royal notary. The amulets show that Eibeschutz
invoked the power of Shabbetai Tzvi, and some bitter



controversy broke out between Rabbi Emden and Eibeschutz
that split the Jewish community throughout Europe.

The interesting thing about Samuels' note is that
Eibeschutz was not just a Sabbatian, but he was an actual
participant in the Holy Trinity, or more correctly, Quaternary of
the Frankists. What comes out of this footnote is that
Eibeschutz must have taken the Massa Duma 91 (Isaiah 21:11),
burden of silence, which members of the innermost Frankist
circles took.

Dobrushka is the name that Frank assumed after he left
prison in 1773 and resided for thirteen years in Gino (Bruenn)
Moravia, with his relatives, Solomon and Sheindel Dobrushka.
Solomon (1715-1774) held both the potash and the tobacco
monopolies in Moravia. 92 Their children were Frank's

The Encyclopedia Judaica states that Frank's income "was
a constant source of wonder and speculation, and the matter
was never resolved." The Encyclopedia further declares that
during his sojourn with Dobrushka, Frank spoke a great deal
about a general revolution that would overthrow kingdoms,
and the Catholic Church in particular.

In the Frankist Quaternary, we find that the Frank name
Dobrushka takes the place of the Virgin. How then does Frank
fit in with this feminine personality? Frank accomplishes the
female aspect by giving his wife sexually to members of the
sect, and later his daughter Eva, who went to bed with the
"greatest" of Europe, such as Joseph II, Emperor of Austria,
1755. 94 The Frankists sojourned in Austria until Frank crossed
the Dneister River on December 3, 1755.

Frank preached that the Virgin is renewed by going to
Edom, which is represented by Christianity, so that revolution
comes from Edom. He viewed the religions of the world as
portals through which one passes before the Redemption.
What is not too well known is that two years before his and
other Frankists' conversion to Catholicism in 1759, Frank



converted to Islam. In the Frankists Godhead, we can find the
four personalities represented by: 1 . Atika Kadisha, 2. Malka
Kadisha, 3. Shechina, and 4. The Great Brother. 95 The last
may account for the term "Big Brother." The first three
designations are legitimate Kabbalistic terms for mystical
manifestations of God's presence.

When we examine the personalities as being exemplary of
stages of the revolution, Elijah represents the ultimate
Messiah, which is reached by starting with Judaism,
represented by Jonathan Eibeschutz; going to Islam
represented by Shabbetai Tzvi; a the last portal represented
by Frank in Christianity. After the revolution comes Big
Brother, who rules the earth.

When Frank requested his formal conversion Christianity,
he asked that certain conditions be followed so as to enable
his converts to appear secretly as Jews. Among the conditions
for the conversion were that converts:

1. Not be compelled to shave the sideburns.

2. Be allowed to wear traditional Jewish garb.

3. Flave Jewish and Christian names.

4. Not be forced to eat unkosher food.

5. Rest on both Saturday and Sunday.

Examination of the previously mentioned subversive
Temple of Understanding in Washington, D. C, reveals a
Frankist type of connotation, where there are six portals
depicting Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity,
Confucianism and Fiinduism.

The question may be asked as to why much of this
information has escaped wider study. Gershom Scholem
attempts to answer this question in his "Floliness of Sin," as

"Secularist historians, on the other hand, have been at pains

to de-emphasize the role of Sabbatianism for a different

reason. Not only did most of the families once associated with

the Sabbatian movement in Western and Central Europe



continue to remain afterward within the Jewish fold, but many
of their descendents, particularly in Austria, rose to positions
of importance during the 19 th century as prominent
intellectuals, great financiers, and men of high political
connections. Such persons, needless to say, could scarcely
have been expected to approve of attempts to 'expose' their
'tainted' linage, and in view of their stature in the Jewish
community it is not surprising that their wishes should have
carried weight. Furthermore, in an age when Jewish
scholarship itself was considered to be in part an extension of
the struggle for political emancipation, the climate for research
in so sensitive an area was by no means generally favorable.
In consequence, those Jewish scholars who had access to the
wealth of Sabbatian documents and eyewitness reports that
were still to be found early in the century failed to take
advantage of the opportunity, while by the time a later
generation arrived on the scene, the sources had been
destroyed and were no longer available, even to anyone who
might have desired to make use of them."

At the same time, Scholem points out that religious Jews
have been reluctant to deal with Sabbatianism because of the
subversion of Rabbis such as Eibeschutz, 98 which Scholem
has described in great detail in his monograph Leket

As for M. Samuels' remaining remarks in his footnote
concerning Frank's two nephews Frey, who resided in Paris
and were guillotined in the days of the Terror, they were
definitely Jacobins, and it is the checking of this passage with
the history of the French Revolution that bears out the
accuracy of M. Samuels' remarks. Samuels discusses in detail
some of Frank's activities' 00 while in Offenbach, where he lived
in regal style and maintained a militia. He died in Offenbach on
August 10,1791, having settled there in 1786. There he gave
instructions in chemistry to his military guard. 101 Some of the
chemical concoctions ascribed to the Illuminati in Zwack's
collection were prepared by Frank for the Illuminati.



The Frey brothers, referred to by Samuels, who were
guillotined, were actually the children of Solomon Dobrushka.
Of twelve children fathered by Solomon, all were Frankists and
eight openly converted to Christianity. 102

Six Dobrushkas were ennobled. Solomon's son Moses
Dobrushka was an outstanding man of letters. Fie was born
July 12, 1753, and officially converted to Catholicism on
December 7, 1773. 103 After his baptism in Prague, 104 his name
was changed to Schonfeld, the name of the ennobled
Dobrushka children.'

In 1782, Moses Dobrushka, now Schonfeld, founded a
Masonic lodge called the Asiatische Bruder, 106 which was one
of the four Illuminati lodges in Vienna. 101 After his uncle's death
on August 10, 1791, he was offered the leadership of the
Frankist movement, which he refused, because as a
revolutionary Jacobin, he exercised far greater power than he
could with the Frankists. In 1792, he and his brother Emanuel
(1765-1 794) changed their names to Frey.

Stanley Loomis's book, Paris in the Terror (Avon 1964),
refers to the Frey brothers, but he writes their name "Frei" and
describes their trial as Jacobins taking place at the same time
with the more famous Danton. Loomis mentions that the Frey
brothers were guillotined because of their activities with the
East India Corporation, which company's tea, as the reader
may recall, was dumped at the Boston Tea party.

The Freys' sister Leopoldine married the Jacobin Francois
Chabot (1757-1794), who was a former Franciscan monk, 108
noted for having voted for the death of Louis XVI. Chabot
joined the Frey brothers at the guillotine on April 5, 1794, he
being likewise found to be enmeshed with East India Company
intrigues. What is perhaps more interesting is who the big
financial interests were behind the Frey brothers. They were
the Illuminati princes who had financed the East India
Company, and who had kept Frank in the luxury that he was
accustomed. By 1816, the last of the Frank children, Eva, died,



being preceded by her brother Joseph in 1807, and by her
other brother (who had changed his name upon conversion to
Christianity to Rochas) in 1813. Dimont says of Eva,

"She preserved the dues-paying membership of Frankism by
combining the scholasticism of the Zohar with the mysteries of
her bedroom into a lucrative religion which enabled her to live
in the grand style of her father. The Kabbala had not taught
her how to retain her youth, however, and her membership
dwindled as her middle-age spread increased." 109

She died in debt and poverty.

After Jacob Frank's death, a letter circulated in 1799 from
Frank's headquarters in Offenbach. It is known as the Red
Epistle of 1799, 110 and was written in red ink. The Epistle
exhorts members of the sect who embrace the "holy religion of
Edom — Christianity." Now, Edom is associated with the color
red, because the Flebrew word for red is adorn, which contains
the same Flebrew letters but different vowels. Flence the red
ink. Scholem labels the Epistle "a mystical theory of
revolution." 111 This author prefers to call it "The Red Kabbala."
Scholem tells us 112 that government officials intercepted
copies of the Epistle, and they suspected its authors of being
hidden revolutionaries, but for the wrong reason. The reason
was there were several references in the Epistle to Jacob,
which led them to surmise that they were in reality dealing with
the Jacobins. 113

"An investigation was ordered on the spot. The authorities who
conducted it in Frankfort and Offenbach, however, did not
delve beneath the surface of the affair and were quickly
satisfied that it involved nothing more than an intrigue to
swindle and extort money from ignorant Jews ... on a deeper
level the authorities' suspicions were fully if unwittingly
justified.' Flad they bothered to read and understand not just
the debtor's notice of Frank's children in Offenbach ... but also
the Prophecy of Isaiah that had been composed within the
four walls of the 'court' itself, they would have been amazed to



discover how ardently these Frankist 'Jacobins' yearned for
the overthrow of the existing regime ." 114

The Jacobin leaders who were active in the French
Revolution were anti-religious, but they could clearly be
divided into two types, both of which manifested the anti-
Semitism of which we spoke. One wanted to see the Jews
obliterated and persecuted, and the other wanted to see the
Jew emancipated and assimilated. The Frankists and the
llluminatist Jacobins aligned with Mirabeau were anti-Semites,
favoring the total assimilation of the Jews.

Of course, the Jews were a minority among the Jacobins,
and to call Jacobinism a Jewish plot would be just as
ridiculous as calling world Communism Jewish-dominated,
although both groups had their prominent Jewish
revolutionaries. Among those revolutionaries who sought the
physical destruction of the Jews, one could count Voltaire, the
Alsatian deputy Rewbell, one named LaFare, Bishop of Nancy,
and the Abbe Maury. Those who wished for the emancipation
of the Jews or their spiritual destruction were Count Mirabeau,
the Abbe Gregoire, Diderot and Robespierre . 115

Zalkind-Flourwitz, Mendelssohn's Jacobin disciple, openly
displayed such desires for Jews to assimilate that he could
well be characterized as a Jewish anti-Semite, or self-hating
Jew. Thus Flertzberg informs us that he was a bitter enemy of
the Talmud and the Rabbinate . 116 Fie asked that Rabbis be
denied any authority to discipline Jews via
excommunication . 117 Flertzberg goes on to say that

"In his hatred of Rabbis, Zalkind-Flourwitz reached such fury
that he even put into print accusations that must be called a
piece of overt anti-Semitism. Commenting on the custom
enjoined by the Talmud that Jewish dead are to be buried on
the very day of death, Zalkind-Flourwitz wrote that it is quite
probable that this homicidal custom was introduced by some
Rabbi who was a poisoner, in order to hide his crime from the



In 1789, there were approximately 40,000 Jews in France,
30,000 of whom lived in ghettos. During the Reign of Terror, all
houses of worship were closed in accordance with Jacobin
anti-religious policy. The churches and synagogues were
reopened after Robespierre was guillotined on July 28, 1794,
signifying the end of terror and the Jacobin power base. The
Jews could now enjoy the full benefits of a vote taken on
September 28, 1791, by the Commune before the National
Assembly in which 53 out of 60 districts in France voted in
favor of granting all Jews of France complete civil rights on a
par with all citizens, which meant that the decision favored the
spiritual anti-Semites, for Jews to assimilate.

What we are confronted with here is the legitimate desire
for Jews to have their legal civil rights being exploited by
radical revolutionaries. It is then no wonder that there were
such phenomena in France as Jewish Jacobin lodges. For
example, Fiertzberg cites a Jewish Jacobin lodge in Bayonne,
which he characterizes as "less anti-religious than the usual
run of Jacobins, including those in control in Bayonne itself." 119
Fiertzberg gives a comprehensive presentation with regard to
the major personalities of the French Revolution and their
attitudes towards Jews. Voltaire was virulently anti-Semitic.
Voltaire was prone to concocting plots against Jews. For
example, he accused a prominent wealthy Jew called
Solomon Levy 120 of spying for the Emperor of Austria. Voltaire
stated, "A Jew belongs to no land other than the one where he
makes money. Can he not just as easily betray the King for the
Emperor, as the Emperor for the King?" 121 Voltaire was prone
to making disparaging remarks pertaining to Jews as being
akin to barbarians, in addition to voicing his incisive criticism of
the Bible, its Jewish background, and all religions, typical of
Jacobin rhetoric. 122

The Jacobins did not take any chance, though, in
suppressing or censoring anti-Semitic rabble-rousing, for
although the revolutionary left, represented primarily by the



Commune of Paris, adopted the cause of the Jews, its leaders
knew very well that this attitude was unpopular with the
masses. 123 Which raises the question whether the
revolutionary left had significant amounts of Jewish money
behind it to dissuade itself from giving in to the masses.

A circular letter issued by the Jacobins after the Revolution
makes mention that they were less concerned about the
Jewish religious system than about what they called "their
criminal antipathy to all citizens who do not belong to their
ridiculous cult." 124

Another Jacobin outburst declared that Jews should give up
"their swindles and extortions ... and work with their hands in
the workshops and fields." 125 Hertzberg classifies this rhetoric
as that of some of the extreme Jacobins of Eastern France.

Many scholars have noted that Karl Marx's anti-Semitic
outlook bore a relationship to Voltaire's works. 126 This point is
made, for example, in a book entitled Anti-Semites in Modern
France." 127

An historian named Silberner has taken up the question of
the anti-Semitic attitudes of the European left in the 19th
century in a work entitled Western Socialism and the Jewish
Question. 128 However, he does fail to link the Socialist outlook
with Voltaire. Hertzberg, noting this, maintains that the subject
needs further study." 129

Whether the Frankists became Jacobins, Reform or
Conservative movement leaders, or otherwise, one thing came
down from generation to generation in their circles, and that
was their profound hatred for Torah, true Judaism, the Talmud
and the Rabbis, which, unfortunately, manifests itself to this
very day among large segments of the leadership of the
Conservative and Reform movements throughout the
Diaspora. These successors of the Frankists and the Haskala
were in no small way influenced by Frank's disciples to whom
we will now turn our attention.





If your brother, your own mother's son, or your son or
daughter, or the wife of your bosom, or your closest friend
entices you in secret, saying, "Come, let us worship other
gods" ... do not assent or give heed to him... Thine eyes shall
have no pity on him, or compassion. Do not conceal him, but
thou shalt surely take his life.

(Deuteronomy 13:7-10)
Thy destroyers ... shall go forth from thee.

(Isaiah 49-1 7)

The Frankist elite consisted of a circle of very gifted
intellectuals, theologians and men of letters, as well as a group
of men of great financial means who were for the most part
great merchant bankers, and exerted tremendous influence in
their day in the highest financial circles of Europe. The most
logical place to discover these people and their machinations
would be to investigate Frank's own family and whom they
married, bearing in mind, as we have noted before, that the
Frankists only married among themselves.

As the circle of this elite widens, we find that they were in
intimate contact with others whom we cannot document as
being Frankists but whose actions indeed at least conform to
the Frankist pattern of behavior. One such individual belonging
to this latter category is Israel Jacobson (1768-1828). As
we examine the Dobrushka family, we find that they inter-
married with other people of great financial means, 131 and that
there was evidence of Frankism in those families as well as



mass conversion to Christianity. For example, Moses
Dobrushka himself married the niece of Joachim Popper
(1720-1 795), 132 who was a merchant banker. Francesca
Dobrushka, his sister, married into the Hoenig family, 133 later
ennobled as the von Hoenigsbergs. 134

The Hoenigsberg family acquired most of its wealth as
descendants of Loebel Ploenig who, during the Austrian
secessions of 1740-1748 and the Seven-Year War of 1756-
1763, accumulated a fantastic fortune as a Supplier of the
Austrian army.

Loebel's eldest son, Israel Ploenig (1724-1808), achieved
control of the Austrian tobacco monopoly. Joseph II, Emperor
of Austria, incorporated the monopoly in 1784 as a
government corporation, and retained Israel as a director, thus
making Israel Ploenig the first Jew to become an Austrian

Israel's partner in the tobacco business was his brother
Aaron Moses (1730-1787). Aaron Moses had ten children, all
of whom were baptized in 1796. Israel had six sons and one
daughter. One of his sons, Leopold (1744-1815), married the
daughter of Jonas Wehle, the Frankist leader of Prague,
prominent in the Reform movement. 135 Leopold was an active
Frankist and complained to the Prague police, accusing the
Rabbis of religious coercion and requesting protection. He
sought constantly to undermine, by deception, Rabbinical
authority, and authored a thirty-two-page protest in Prague,
which was similar in its anti-Semitic character to the
aforementioned writings of Zalkind Hourwitz.

Leopold Hoenigsberg's brother-in-law was Rabbi Wolf
Eibeschutz, 136 the son of Rabbi Jonathan Eibeschutz, who
married another daughter of Jonas Wehle. 137 Jonas Wehle
(1 752-1 823) 138 in addition to being pivotal in his influence, was
an outstanding aristocrat in Prague. He had a nephew named
Gottlieb Wehle, who was also a very prominent Sabbatian.
Gottlieb Wehle came to the United States with a large



constituency of Frankists from Bohemia and Moravia after the
Revolution of 1848. A will which he left in 1881 was the subject
of a chapter in Gershom Scholem's book The Messianic idea
in Judaism. We learn from Scholem that this Gottlieb Wehle
was "the great-uncle of the late Justice Louis Dembitz Bran-
ded and a first cousin of Zacharias Frankel." We met
Zacharias (or Zecharia) Frankel in Part I as the founder of the
Conservative movement in Germany. Zacharias Frankel was
born in Prague on July 7, 1802, and Gottlieb Wehle twenty
days later on July 27.

Louis Dembitz Brandeis' grandfather, named Dembitz, was
a student of medicine when he became active with the
Frankists. 139 Dembitz's son was Louis Naftali Dembitz (1833-
1907), 140,141 who was an ardent abolitionist, and was one of the
nominators of Lincoln at the Republican Convention in 1860.
Dembitz is described as an observant and religious Jew, which
is completely out of character with the behavior of the Frankist
'48-ers who arrived in the United States.

Louis Brandeis himself appeared to be at odds with the
interests of the international bankers of his day. For example,
he was an ardent Zionist, and Jacob Schiff in 1907 declared
that one could not "at the same time be a true American and
an honest adherent of the Zionist movement," while Brandeis
held that "to be good Americans, we must be better Jews, and
to be better Jews, we must become Zionists." 142

While it is difficult to show any connection on the part of
Justice Brandeis with the Frankists, it is no mere accident that
Brandeis University was the headquarters of all SDS chapters
throughout the United States, from which their most radical
upheavals and riots were masterminded. The founders of
Brandeis University, and some of its top administrators, have
been violently anti-religious, and have left wing associations.
We shall deal with this group in a future chapter, but suffice it
to say that the Louis Dembitz Brandeis name placed him in a
position similar to the fictitious Rosemary of "Rosemary's



Baby", and while he never had anything to do with Frankism,
radical revolutionaries have utilized his name as a rallying
point because of its radical Frankist connections.

Jonah Wehle's brother, Aaron Beer Wehle (1750-1825),
was Gottlieb Wehle's father, and was also a prominent
Frankist. Aaron's sister Rosel Eiger (died 1831) was a
prophetess in the movement. Eva Frank in 1816, shortly
before her death, presented a picture of herself in miniature to
Aaron, which is presently a part of the Schwadron Collection of
portraits and autographs in the Flebrew University Library. 143

Aaron Wehle married Esther (1772-1838), who was his
second wife, and who bore him Gottlieb in 1802. She was the
daughter of Bermann Simon Frankel Spiro, grandfather of
Zacharias Frankel. Rabbi Jacob Emden accused Esther's
mother of Sabbatian leanings. 144 Esther married Aaron Wehle
in 1791.

It is interesting to note that Justice Brandeis' wife was also
of Frankist ancestry (a fact which appears to have escaped
Gershom Scholem), and this double Frankist association may
well have helped him rise in America's social spheres to the
Supreme Court. Brandeis married one of Gottlieb Wehle's
granddaughters, and her sister married Felix Adler, the Geiger
Seminary graduate whom we discussed in Part I and who
founded Ethical Culture.

The Asiatic Brethren Illuminati lodge to which we have
previously referred, founded by Moses (alias Dobrushka)
Schonfeld in 1782, was a meeting ground for many Frankists
in Vienna. The goings-on of this lodge were documented in a
chapter 145 entitled The Order of the Asiatic Brethren, which
comprises a comprehensive book, Jews and Freemasons in
Europe 1723-1939 by Jacob Katz.

It should be pointed out that, when attempts were made by
the Illuminati, Jacobins and Frankists to infiltrate the Masons,
their infiltration did not mean that they harbored any particular
love for Freemasonry. On the contrary, they hated it with a



passion, and only wished to utilize the cover of Freemasonry
as a means of spreading their revolutionary doctrines, and to
provide a place where they could covertly meet without
arousing suspicion. The Order of Asiatic Brethren's full name
was Die Bruder St. Johannes des Evangelisten aus Asien.
From Katz we learn that this order was the earliest attempt to
found a Masonic order with the avowed purpose of accepting
both Jews and Christians in its ranks. As usual, the
revolutionaries had a legitimate issue to exploit, which they
could pervert to their own ends. The legitimate issue was civil
rights for Jews, and the exclusion of Jews from Masonic
orders. This parallels Jacobin attempts at the time of the
French Revolution to begin pioneering work with blacks who
were disenfranchised as slaves or second class citizens in
European lands, and to exploit them for their own ends, such
as the Jacobin-sponsored Societe des Amis des Noirs, the
Society of the Friends of the Blacks. The Illuminati lodges
established themselves a reputation for being tolerant and not
bigoted, and hence filled themselves up with Jews, but Jews
were not allowed into the Illuminati inner sanctum until the
19th century.

Katz names many members of the Viennese Asiatic
Brethren. Fie mentions that one of the Floenigs belonged, 146
and one named Nathan Adam Arnstein (1748-1 838). 147
Arnstein was a brother-in-law of Isaac Daniel Itzig of Berlin,
who was the brother-in-law of David Friedlander, of Moses
Mendelssohn's circle. Itzig was co-founder with Friedlander of
the Jewish Free School in Berlin. Interestingly enough, this
school had its own printing press, known as the Press of the
Jewish Free School which, in 1796, changed its name to the
Oriental Printing Office, and was considered to be a powerful
instrument of cultural reform. 148 Itzig was financial advisor to
King Frederick William II of Prussia who, when he was Crown
Prince, was a member of the Berlin Illuminati. 149 Born in 1744,
he became King in 1786.



The Asiatic Brethren Illuminati aberration had lodges in
Prague, Innsbruck, Berlin, Frankfurt and Hamburg. 150 Itzig was
a member of the Berlin Asiatic Brethren.

Arnstein's brother-in-law was also a member of the Vienna
lodge. 151 His name was Bernhard von Eskeles (1753-1 839). 152
Eskeles married Itzig's sister Cecelia. Arnstein's wife was
known as the Baroness Fanny. His daughter Charlotte
became the wife of Metternich's chief banker, Leopold Edler
von Hertz (1767-1 828). 153 Her cousin (son of Solomon and
Maria-Anna nee Arnstein) Leopold and five of his children
embraced Christianity in 1819.

While Frederick William II wished it to be forgotten after
assuming the throne that he was an llluminatus. It was public
knowledge that he was given to Rosicrucian mysticism. 154 In
1790, the Toleranze Lodge was founded in Berlin by
prominent German Jewish financiers. They approached the
Grand Lodge of Germany to grant them an approved
constitution, but their request was refused. The banker Itzig
was able to procure a letter of approval from King Frederick
William, and the King consented "to tolerate the lodge in
question, and to protect it as long as it harbored no tendencies
towards illuminatismus and toward enlightenment." 155

Katz informs us that illumnatismus means "an order which
had gained notoriety for social and political extremism." So we
see that the King of Prussia, Frederick William II, also tried to
lead a double life, outwardly a man of conservative views, but
inwardly a radical. We can also learn from these royal pro-
nouncements that Enlightenment and llluminatism were held
to be synonymous.

At this point, we may well ask ourselves what Frederick
William had to gain from this type of activity in terms of his own
self-interest, which would be the throne of Prussia. Aside from
any ego satisfaction that he may have harbored as a Prince or
Magus King of an enlightened organization, or belief in the
immortality of his soul (as preached by Plato in his Phaedon),



so that he would reign two centuries later over the new Platonic
Republic, there is another consideration that we may derive
from another monarchial predecessor to Frederick William.

This monarch was none other than Kavadh I (449-531),
ruler of Persia. 156 Kavadh was in constant conflict with his
nobility. They were seeking ways to depose him when Kavadh
engineered a political solution to his crisis. Fie thus sought out
the Communist teacher Mazdak and clandestinely supported
him. Mazdak engaged in guerilla warfare against the nobility,
and embroiled the Persian Empire in class warfare. Kavadh
just sat back and watched as the hordes of Mazdak overran
some of Persia's major economic centers killing out the
nobility's police and armies. 157 In the process, Mazdak
managed to confiscate nobility monies, and some of their
wives, which he distributed among his followers according to
the tenets of his Communist teachings of community property.

During the Mazdak uprisings, the Jews as entrepreneurs
suffered terribly, losing their hard earned fortunes, businesses,
lives, and the chastity of their wives and daughters. While all
hope seemed to be lost, Mar Zutra II, who was Exilarch (Chief
of the Jewish Community) succeeded in organizing the Jewish
Community under arms. Mar Zutra's army began to turn the
tide and reigned victorious. Mar Zutra was ennobled by
popular acclaim because of his victories. The successes of
Mar Zutra drove the Mazdakites to desperation. They
attempted to assassinate him in his castle on one occasion.
Finally in the year 520 they succeeded in inflicting heavy
casualties on Mar Zutra's army, which now comprised non-
Jews as well, and during one fierce battle, captured him and
crucified him to death. On the day of his death, Mar Zutra's
wife gave birth to Mar Zutra III, and left immediately after his
birth for Jerusalem. Mar Zutra III left his impact on Jewish
history as Editor of the Jerusalem Talmud. 155 We thus have
the ironic precedent of a great Talmudic authority, Mar Zutra II,
Exilarch and father of a Talmudic Editor, fighting Communism



in the Diaspora, risking his life, and finally being tortured to
death by crucifixion, nearly 1500 years before John Birch the
missionary-after whom the Birch society got its name-was
tortured by Communist Chinese.

Nine years after the death of Mar Zutra II, Kavadh with the
aid of his favorite son Chosroes, implemented an edict of
extermination against the Mazdakites. Mazdak himself was
hanged, bringing to an end the Communist reign of terror.
Kavadh's kingdom was now united and intact without threats
from aspiring noblemen. Communism had served Kavadh well.

While Frederick William did not rule an aspiring nobility, he
was surrounded with independent neighboring German states,
which at various times since their inception, had grown at the
expense of their neighbors or had diminished to their
neighbors' advantage. If Prussia could succeed in carving out
a unified German republic by stepping in as a conqueror of her
neighboring states to quell their internal strifes, it would be
worth the risk.

In any event, both Prussia under Frederick William, and
Austria under Joseph II, played this political game, and were
the principal stage upon which the Frankist elite practiced their
machinations prior to he French Revolution, and it was in
Berlin's Asiatic Brethren that the Itzig family reigned supreme.
By just following the Itzig family alone one can trace through
their marriages and social circles most of the llluminati-
Frankist political intrigues of the late eighteenth and early
nineteenth centuries.

Isaac Daniel Itzig (1750-1806) was the son of Daniel Jaffe
(1723-1 799). 159 In addition to being distinguished bankers, the
Itzigs were purveyors of silver to the Royal Prussian mint.
Daniel, together with banker-merchant FI. Ephraim (1703-
1753), during the Seven-Year War, issued debased coinage,
which not only contributed to inflation, but helped the Prussian
government fight the war. Ephraim never lived to see his
grandson David (1762-1834) who further cemented the



Ephraim-ltzig consortium by marrying one of Daniel's twelve

Daniel's daughter Leah married B. Seligman (1771-815),
progenitor of Joseph Seligman of Our Crowd, who was president
of Felix Adler's leftist Ethical Culture Society, and considered
himself a free thinker, but in reality was an atheist. 161

Felix Adler's wife, as we mentioned before, was the sister-
in-law of Louis D. Brandeis, and the daughter of Joseph
Goldmark (1819-1881), who was born in Warsaw. A radical
Communist in the Austrian revolution of 1848, he was
president of the Student Union, and conspired to murder the
Austrian Minister of War, Latour. Fie escaped to America and
was sentenced to death in absentia for his part in Latour's
death. By 1868, Marxist radicals had so gotten in control of
Austria that when Joseph returned to Austria, he was acquitted
of his role in the Latour murder.

Joseph married the daughter of Frankist Gottlieb Wehle.
His son Flenry (1857-1941) designed the locks of the Panama
Canal, and his daughter Pauline (1874-1962) was a prominent
social worker and secretary of the National Consumer
Leagues. 162

It was Daniel Itzig's daughter Blumchen (1752-1814) who
married David Friedlander of the Mendelssohn circle, and who
participated in the heretical Biur, the German translation of the
Torah. Plowever, Friedlander's avocations were not lightly
regarded by the Itzig clan.

Naftali Plerz Weisel (Wessely in some texts (1725-1805)
contributed the Leviticus Commentary to the Biur. Fie was an
alumnus of one of Rabbi Jonathan Eibeschutz's seminaries, 165
which as early as 1726 had been placed under a Rabbinical
ban for their Sabbatian teachings. Eibeschutz had established
such seminaries in cities where he sojourned, such as Prague
and Altona.



The Gaon Rabbi Moses Chagiz (Hagiz in some texts (1672-
1751) had for example, in a letter dated 19 Tishrei (October
15), 1726, proclaimed:

"They shall proclaim a strict ban that would prohibit any

student from Poland to study under Rabbi Jonathan from

Prague." 164

Rabbi Jacob Joshua Falk (1680-1756), author of the
Monumental Pnei Yehoshua, Talmudic commentary,
excommunicated Eibeschutz in 1752.

When he conspired to introduce a radical compulsory
secular education for Jewish children under Joseph II, Weisel
published a book in 1782 entitled Divrei Shalom V'Emet
(Words of Peace and Truth) to support this position. Rabbi
H. Lewin, Chief Rabbi of Berlin, proceeded to place a ban on
the book, but had pressure put on him by the Itzigs, who
thwarted it. 165

The Arnsteins introduced Weisel to the Trieste community
and financially aided Mendelssohn's Blur project. 166

Nathan Adam Arnstein (1748-1838) had three brothers:
Joseph Michael (1778-1783), Mayer and David Isaac. Joseph
became a Catholic in 1778, and was disowned by the father,
Adam Isaac (1721-1785), but was ennobled in 1783. His
brother Mayer married Theresa Wertheimer, granddaughter of
banker-Chief Rabbi Samson Wertheimer of Austria. Adam's
grandfather Aaron (1682-1744) was employed by Rabbi

Rabbi Wertheimer (1658-1724) was considered to be the
wealthiest Jew in Europe from 1694-1704. Fie was Financial
Administrator of Emperors Leopold I, Joseph I and Charles VI
and supervised their diplomatic missions. This earned him the
nickname Judenkaiser, Jewish Emperor. 167

In addition to the family ties of Arnstein and Eskeles via
marriage in the Itzig family, the two families were connected by
marriage through the Wertheimers, for Bernhard Gabriele
Eskeles (1692-1753) married Wertheimer's daughter, who



gave birth after his death to their son Bernhard (1753-1839)
who married Cecelia Itzig.

The Arnsteins and Eskeles were involved in clandestine
political intrigues aimed at political revolution, and were active
Illuminati. Their main base of operation was the Asiatic
Brethren lodge in Vienna. From there they executed what is
described as the worst piece of legislation leading to Jewish
assimilation, 168 namely the Toleranz-Patent (Edict of
Tolerance) of Joseph II.

The Toleranz-patent intrigue was kicked off by the
appearance of an anonymous expose illustrating the alleged
backwardness of Austrian Jewry. The anonymous authorship
has been ascribed by historians to Bernhard Eskeles. 169 This
led to Joseph M's Patent of Tolerance on January 2, 1782. In
1788, Joseph 170 ordered the Jews to divest themselves of laws
and customs that ran counter to his "enlightened" imperial

Bernhard's sister Lea, meanwhile, was engaged in high
espionage, and was involved in a Prussian spy scandal. 171 She
married Valentin Guenther of the court of Joseph II.
Bernhard's wife Cecelia and her sister, the Baroness Fanny
von Amstein (1757-1818), opened salons and ballrooms that
were the rage of Vienna. The two sisters tried to outdo each
other in extravagant parties and libertine escapades. Fanny
bankrolled Mozart and introduced to Vienna the first Christmas
tree. Cecelia flirted with the llluminatus 172 humanist Goethe.
Her sister-in-law, Lea Guenther, corresponded with Goethe

Not to be outdone by Cecelia, Fanny enticed the Count of
Liechtenstein to duel for her honor. He was killed. During the
Congress of Vienna, Metternich, Hardenberg and Talleyrand
danced in her ballrooms, which "became a center of political
intrigue." 173 Her daughter, Henrietta, married banker Heinrich
Pereira (1774-1835), whose family converted to Christianity.



Arnstein and Eskeles both financed the Tyrolese peasant
revolt against France and Bavaria.

Fanny's nephew, Benedict David Arnstein (1765-1841), son
of David Isaac, entered the banking business and was held in
high esteem in Viennese society as a writer-dramatist. His first
publication, an llluminatus propaganda piece, describes the
joy felt by Jewish families of Austria at the issue of the Toler-
ance Edict.

The banking houses of Arnstein and Eskeles both
eventually ended in financial ruin in the early-nineteenth
century, as their wealth passed on to the increasing
competition of the Rothschild dynasty, and their religion which
they had long ago renounced in practice and belief, officially
changed to Christianity, such as in the case of Cecelia
Eskeles, whose entire family was baptized in 1824. When
Fanny Arnstein died, she endowed the Flome of the Aged for
Catholic priests of Vienna, and was eulogized by none other
than N. FI. Flomberg (1749-1841), whom we met as co-
conspirator with Lillienthal and Geiger in Part I. Flomberg was
a collaborator with Mendelssohn's Blur, on the Deuteronomy
translation. Mendelssohn considered Flomberg competent
enough to tutor his son Joseph.

There is no doubt about the Frankist rites of the Asiatic
Brethren lodge and their esteem of the All-Seeing Eye.

The Asiatic Brethren adopted Christian symbols 174 and
were required to eat pork and milk. Professor Scholem 175 has
proven that the Brethren were dominated by Sabbatian

While Dobrushka, founder of the Viennese Asiatic Lodge,
went to an early death, Ephraim Joseph Hirschfield (1755-
1820), a Frankist 176 and activist in Mendelssohn's circle, 177
was active with the Vienna Lodge, and was a missionary for
the Asiatic Brethren. Fie was described as its "central spiritual
pillar." 178 Hirschfield preached that he who occupied himself
with Kabbala could pass beyond the confines of the Catholic,



Muslim or Jewish religions, and reach "the one and only true,
pure and overall religion." 179 From 1792 until his death in 1820,
Hirschfield settled in Offenbach, seat of the Frankists, where
he devoted much time to their activities.

A close acquaintance of Hirschfield was Franz Joseph
Molitor who was historian for the Vienna Lodge. 180 In 1812,
Molitor (1779-1860), who was a Christian with Frankist
leanings, became head of the Jewish Freemasonry lodge in
Frankfurt, which had llluminastic tendencies. Fie invited
Hirschfield to introduce Asiatic rites, 181 but this was rejected by
the lodge, especially since that lodge had been chartered prior
to Napoleon's defeat by the Illuminati's Grand Orient Lodge of
Paris, and made it suspect. 182

Molitor revered Frankist Jonathan Eibeschutz, and stated
that Moses Schonfeld was Eibeschutz's 183 grandson. We know
that this is not true, taking family pedigree at face value,
although the possibility of his being the illegitimate grandson is
within reason when it is known that Wolf Eibeschutz visited the
Dobrushka homestead in Brno, 184 and that adultery was
frequently practiced by them, even "respectable" rabbis who
were Crypto-Sabbatians. 185 What comes through discounting
this possibility is Eibeschutz's influence in this circle, which
caused the Lodge to feel proudly associated with him,
especially Eibeschutz's nihilistic antinomian work V'Avo
Playom El Pla'ayin (I Shall Approach the Eye Today) which in
its title alludes to the "eye" of llllumination. 186 Eibeschutz's
sinister allusions in this book found representation in
Weishaupt's Illuminati, not only in the All-Seeing Eye, but in
other symbolisms such as the point in a circle, denoting the
fecundity principle and sexual anarchy, 187 which is still in use
by today's continuation of the Frankists, the Platonic-
Communist Cult of the All-Seeing Eye. 188

In the wake of llluministic German-Jewish freemasonry
Lodges, we find that the Rothschilds very adroitly steered their
way into a position of control over these lodges in much the



same manner as Friedrich, the Duke of Brunswick, member of
the Illuminati 189 was one of the main sponsors of the Vienna
Asiatic Brethren Lodge until his death in 1792. 190

The Rothschilds utilized the services of Sigmund
Geisenheimer, their head clerk, 191 who in turn was aided by
Itzig of Berlin, the Illuminati of the Toleranz Lodge 192 and the
Parisian Grand Orient Lodge. 193 Geisenheimer was a member
of the Mayence Masonic Illuminati Lodge, 194 and was the
founder of the Frankfurt Judenloge 195 for which attempt he
was excommunicated by the Chief Rabbi of Frankfurt, Tzvi
Hirsch Horowitz. 196 At a later date the Rothschilds joined the
Lodge. Solomon Mayer (or Meir) Rothschild (1774-1855) was
a member for a short while before moving to Vienna. 197

While the Frankists established themselves in 1786 in the
Frankfurt suburb of Offenbach, and were patronized by
unidentified philanthropists 198 of the Frankfurt community, the
author is at a loss to find any documents relating the
Rothschilds with the Frankists. At the time of Jacob Frank's
death in 1791, Amschel Mayer Rothschild, the oldest of the
five Rothschild children, was eighteen and James, the
youngest, had not as yet been born.

During the Frankfurt Lodge's formative years, the three
most active members of the Frankfurt Judenloge, were
Geisenheimer, Michael Hess (1782-1860) and Justus Hiller. 199

Michael Hess was hired by Mayer Amschel Rothschild
(1744-1812) as a tutor for his children. 200 Hess also tried to
close a Jewish religious school in 1816.

Sigmund Geisenheimer "distinguished" himself as a founder
of Philanthropin, the first school of Reform Judaism. The
Frankfurt Judenloge was the headquarters of leaders of the
early Reform movement, including Michael Hess himself,
Michael Creizenbach, the historian Marcus Jost, and Jacob
Auerbach, who aided Lillienthal in his aborted campaign
against Russian Jewry.



At the time of the 1848 revolution, we find that Berthold
Auerbach, Abraham Geiger's revolutionary friend, belonged.
So did the Reform phony rabbi G. Salomon of the Hamburg
Temple, as well as Jacob Dernburg, the jurist, a close friend of
Abraham Geiger. 201

Justus Hiller was appointed orator of the Lodge. At its
founding, his antinomian leanings were evident in his address,
where he alluded to Frankist teachings. 202 He was a delegate
to the French Sanhedrin, along with a Westphalian banker,
Israel Jacobson (1768-1828), whom Abraham Geiger
mentioned when he eulogized James Rothschild on November
29, 1868, as follows:

"...A short time ago we marked the 100th anniversary of the
birth of Israel Jacobson. His abundant wealth would not have
given permanence to his name. He is remembered because
he was a shield and protector of his brethren... Lavish in
charity, he founded a school in which the new educational
requirements of our time were linked with our traditional
heritage for the education of the rising generation. He built
houses of worship in which the faith of Israel was to shine
forth in purified form and to be preached in messages of
inspiration. Therefore his name will live forever." 203

Geiger concluded his eulogy of James by urging the
Rothschilds and the other super-rich to emulate Jacobson; if
they did, he concluded:

"This will be a new radiance to illumine the bright escutcheon
of that house and to give an everlasting memorial to its
name." 204

In other words, Geiger was telling these people that by
emulating Israel Jacobson, they would be good Illuminati.
Indeed, Jacobson had been referred to as "Jacobin, son of
Israel," 205 and Jacobson had served the llluminatus Duke of
Brunswick, sponsor of the Frankist Asiatic Brethren as his
financial agent, as well as Napoleon (as his Westphalian
banker). 206 Actually, Jacobson may be regarded as the first



self-made phony rabbi of the Reform movement. He opened a
"unique" house of "Jewish" worship in Kassel in 1807 called
the Consistor Altschule. 207 On July 17, 1810, Jacobson
introduced Christian practices into a Jewish service. He tolled
a bell, had an organ playing and delivered a sermon clothed in
the robes of a Protestant minister. All the Christian practices
he attributed to the influence upon himself of Mendelssohn. 208
Jacobson's two heretical practices, the playing of an organ as
part of the services, 209 and donning ceremonial robes of a
Christian minister, are today indulged in by nearly all Reform
and most Conservative Temples.

A few years later Jacobson moved to Berlin where he
opened for the Shavuot holiday of 1815, Berlin's first Reform

The Reform clergyman Philipson claims Jacobson as the
founder of Reform 210 and extols him. But somewhere along the
line, Philipson, encyclopediasts and other heralds of
enlightenment have conveniently forgotten an interesting fact
about Jacobson, and that is that the first Reform service in
Berlin was conducted in honor of Jacobson's son's Bar-Mitzva,
and this son thereafter studied for and entered the Catholic
priesthood. 211

These facts should again serve to emphasize the persistent
nihilistic and secular-political character of the Conservative
and Reform movements among Jews.

Since Jacobson's day, little has changed. Antinomian so-
called "Judaisms" continue to serve as assimilating factors and
a destructive force against the intact survival of the Jewish
religion. These same groups continue to Christianize Judaism
and to Judaize Christianity with the ultimate aim of destroying
these religious systems.

As recently as March 25, 1973, a rally was attended by
thousands of Jews in New York in front of the National Council
of Young Israel on 3 West 16th Street. Entitled "An Invitation to



Indignation," it was presided over by prestigious Rabbis
representing religious American Jews. They expressed their:

"Indignation over the grave spiritual injury inflicted by

Conservative and Reform Jewish clergy's teachings and

practices, leading to intermarriage and assimilation." 212

Unfortunately, the media never carried the story, because it
is controlled today, as it was after the Illuminati came to power,
by interests that are dedicated to the destruction of authentic
religious values, and that would never allow a news story to
appear that would challenge the alleged authenticity of secu-
lar-political quasi-religious nihilistic sects. Little has changed
since 1810.

No sooner had Israel Jacobson initiated these "reforms"
than Aaron Chorin (1766-1844) came out in complete support
of them and attempted their initiation. 213 Chorin was a known
Sabbatian, 214 and did most of his dirty work in Hungary,
opening Reform temples. He abolished the Kol Nidre service
on Yom Kippur, agitated for the desecration of the Sabbath
day, and actively promoted intermarriage and assimilation. So
infamous did he become that people said of him that God
created Satan in the image of Aaron Chorin. 215 It was no
wonder then that in addition to his being excommunicated, he
was once nearly stoned to death by a mob of pious Jews. 216

The list of the Frankist elite is long, and if one spent the
time to study just the few families mentioned here in depth, the
information would fill several volumes. However, the same
pattern continuously emerges. Brilliant, wealthy people
addicted to power, anxious to assimilate (if they were born
Jewish), to destroy religions, to indulge in radicalism, to live
cryptic two-faced lives sometimes posing as religious Jews,
Catholics, or Protestants but indulging their revolutionary
radicalism in secret.

Scholem informs us that the Frankists went underground
around 1820, as their emissaries went from town to town and
from family to family to collect their secret writings. 217 In 1845



Wolfgang Wessely published Letters of a Sabbatian, detailing
Frankist activity in Prague. As the years passed, the economic
and intellectual position of the Frankists strengthened. They
built factories and became active in Masonic organizations. 218
They were known to have secret gatherings on the Ninth of Av
which they celebrated as a holiday, 219 which is the Jewish fast
day commemorating the destruction of both Temples. The
center of Frankist activity changed from Frankfurt-Offenbach to
Prague and then to Warsaw. The Frankists in Warsaw, who
were now concentrated among seemingly Catholic families
maintained contact prior to World War II with the Turkish
Donmeh Sabbatians, who were centered in Turkey and in
Salonika, Greece. The Donmeh was active in the Committee
for the Progress and Unity of the Young Turk Movement.
David Bey of the Donmeh was an important minister in the first
Young Turk Government. 221

The Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz (1795-1855) was from a
Frankist family, 222 was a political radical and was imprisoned
by the Russian government for some time. Fie associated with
Goethe. Mickiewicz's poetry reflected paganism and mystical
religious philosophy. 223

From 1832 on, Mickiewicz came to Paris, where he held
some prestigious academic positions. Piowever, his lectures
deteriorated to radical political polemics, causing him to be
censured by the French government. While the Frankists
appear to have dominated Eastern European radical circles,
they also found their way to other parts of Europe and to

In the latter part of the 18th century Samuel Pi. Falk (1710-
1782) a Sabbatian and Frankist, came to London and
established a laboratory devoted to alchemy and Kabbala in
London Bridge. His previous radical activity in Germany had
caused him to be banished from Cologne by the city's



Falk's mystical activities were involved with the use of
secret formulas for the name of God, which earned him the
title of Baal Shem (Master of the Name) of London. The
Frankists indulged in this name because their arch enemies
were the Chasidic Jews, whose spiritual founder, Rabbi Israel
Baal Shem Tov (1700-1760), earned his title by acclamation
because of the good deeds he had done, and his mastery of
the Kabbalistic Holy names of God, the Shemot Flakedoshim.
It therefore is no wonder that when the American artist, John
Copley painted Falk's portrait, that Frankists made duplicates
of it and disseminated it all over Europe, from which they
derived a sadistic pleasure at having substituted one of their ilk
for the Baal Shem Tov. There are still many people today who
erroneously believe Falk's portrait to be that of the Baal Shem
Tov. Copley's painting can be found reproduced in the
Encyclopedia Judaica. 4

While Gershom Scholem seems to have lost the Frankists
somewhere in Warsaw in the I920's and the Donmeh in
Salonika during World War II with the extermination of the
Jews there, I have found their descendants in the United
States to be very active in Marxist-Leninist and Third World
activities. They have attempted to convert the Civil Rights
movement into a Black revolution, and are attempting to
further polarize this country by promoting Women's liberation.
Their children, who are prominent in the SDS, organize and
recruit for the El Fatah, and have succeeded in destroying
synagogues and Jewish institutions by instigating Black
radicals, mostly concentrated in nine urban centers in the US.

The Frankists today no longer call themselves by that
name. The Organization has grown into an international group
labeled by outsiders as the Cult of the All-Seeing Eye. The
Frankists today no longer incorporate the portals of three
religions through which they must pass to bring about the
millennium. They have expanded from Judaism, Islam and



Christianity to six religions, adding on Buddhism, Con-
fucianism and Hinduism as well.

In the United States they are most active in Boston, New
York, Washington and San Francisco. Their ranks and
sponsors include some very famous people, numbering
diplomats, senators, governors and clergymen in their ranks.
These people and their activities will be discussed at length in
following chapters.

In Jewish circles, they dominate the Reform movement at
many levels and the Conservative movement at the highest
level. The late Reform clergyman, Maurice Eisendrath and the
Conservative cleric Abraham Joshua Heschel, belonged to
them. Eisendrath was always involved in Communist causes
and tried to sabotage the Zionist movement. Heschel was the
hero of the New Left's Ramparts Magazine, and contributed
articles to it. Heschel's book, The Prophets, 225 is two-faced
and crypto-Sabbatian, and is used by this elite as a text
because of its references to neo-Platonism, Kings and Priests,
Greek and Babylonian cults.

The other Jewish circles that they dominate are the Anti-
Defamation League, the American Jewish Congress and
Federations of Jewish Charities in many American cities. One
of their cliques of so-called Jewish lawyers is active in the
subversively oriented National Lawyers Guild.

Their major projects currently include attempts by the
American Jewish Congress to destroy the network of Jewish
Religious Day Schools in the U.S., and a newly formed
women's activist group, the National Council of Jewish
Women, which is agitating for Women's rights, and is
attempting to use Women's Liberation to destroy the role of
women in Judaism, and the character and sanctity of Jewish
religious services, such as attempting to have women counted
in prayer quorums. Jewish law does not require just ten men
for the quorum but specifies 10 circumcised males. How they
overcome the circumcision requirement is beyond



comprehension. They also agitate for abortion on demand,
which according to Judaism, is murder, as well as for
affirmative action hiring of special minorities.

Lest any of the information developed here serve as an
outlet for some form of overt, vicarious or subtle anti-Semitism,
or lest someone entertain such thoughts as "see what these
Jews did" it should be pointed out that:

1) It was the desire of the Jews to overthrow the yoke of
bitter Christian anti-Semitic persecution that led them to
initially embrace Sabbatianism from which Frankism evolved.

2) Once anyone embraced these ideologies, he ceased to
be a Jew, being a Jew only by birth or becoming a Jew in
name only (JINO).

3) The Socialists and Communists in Germany utilized the
Frankist elite for their own ends, and when they served the
cause, proceeded to exclude them from the millennium by
expounding an anti-Semitic doctrine which declared all Jews
as belonging to the Jewish race. Baptisms, formal conversion
ceremonies or other means of escaping one's Jewish birth
could never remove in the minds of these anti-Semites the
taint of what they termed to be Jewish racial contamination.

We have outlined relationships between Frankists and the
Illuminati, and the relation of these groups with Mendelssohn's
circle, which began the Flaskala movement. We have shown
how the Frankists embraced Mendelssohn's teachings, and
how his own inner circle that worked on the Biur were involved
with the Frankists, and how his own disciples were involved
with the Jacobins, and how the Jacobins (who were derived
from the Illuminati) were connected with the Frankists. We
have traced the llluministic Frankist families who have formed
the beginnings of the Reform and Conservative movements,
and the major elite families that were connected with them,
who together formed the inner circles of the Bund der
Gerechten (which changed its name to the International



Communist Party in 1848), and were active in the Communist
Revolution of 1848.

Before taking leave of the Frankist elite, we should point out
that David Friedlander (1750-1834), of Moses Mendelssohn's
circle, was also prominent in the Reform movement and,
interestingly enough, in 1799, prior to the movement's
creation, he wrote an anonymous letter to a Pastor Teller on
behalf of several heads of Jewish families asking to be
received into the fold of the Protestant Church on conditions of
their own. 226 In the petition, they asked if they could be
Christians without Christ. The reply sent to Friedlander was in
effect that Christianity which left Christ out was meaningless.
While we know that the Frankists embraced Mendelssohn's
works and that his circle were involved with them, the question
is if Mendelssohn ever came directly in contact with the
Frankists. The answer to that question is a definite one, 227 for
Mendelssohn met in Plamburg with Frankist Jonathan
Eibeschutz in 1761 and, interestingly enough, Eibeschutz
wrote an essay extolling Mendelssohn, which appeared in
1838, long after his death, in a publication called Kerem
Chemed. 8

We can see from our study of the Frankists and their elite
that they were truly monsters. Indeed the concept has been
preserved-and not by accident-in the novel Frankenstein,
which deals with the creation of the Frankenstein monster.
Mary Shelley (the wife of the famous poet Shelley) who wrote
Frankenstein, was a member, together with her husband, of
the Illuminati. 229

The symbolism inherent in the name Frankenstein is as
follows. The word "Frank" stands for Jacob Frank, founder of
the Frankists. The "en" is an Anglicization and abbreviation of
the three letter Plebrew word "ayin," which means "eye," e
resembles the first letter and n is for the last. "Stein" in
German means "stone". In the symbol of the Cult of the All-
Seeing Eye, as in the great seal of the U.S. found on the



American dollar bill, the eye stands over stones, forming the
base of the pyramid. So Frankenstein= Frank + eye + stone.
But what is the symbolism of the Frankenstein monster? As
we have pointed out, the Frankists were tied in with mystical
Kabbalism, and there is a Kabbalistic tradition of such
monsters known as Golems. The Golem concept is discussed
in detail in Professor Scholem's book The Kabbala and Its
Symbolism in chapter V, titled The Idea of a Golem. In the
classical construction of a Golem, the Kabbalist forms a figure
of a man out of earth or clay and writes one of the secret
names of God on a parchment and places it in a cavity in the
Golem's head. After writing the proper formula, depending on
which legend you care to follow, the Golem comes alive.

The cryptic symbolism of the Frankenstein monster is that
the dead and decrepit ideas of the old world are to be given
new life by great mystical savants, purveyors of wisdom, who
will harness the great secrets of the universe, and destroy the
old world, and bring the millennium. In the novel, Frankenstein's
creator studied at the same university where Adam Weishaupt,
founder of the Illuminati, was a professor, Ingolstadt.

Rasputin, who played a major role in the Russian
Revolutions, espoused a doctrine that was identical to that of
the Frankists of "redemption through sin." This will be
discussed later in detail. Suffice it to say that the Frankists and
their elite played a leading role in the development of
Communism, and that they continue to be an elite today within
the wider Communist circle, but nevertheless tend to be stand-
offish, forming a clique within a clique, as they did during the
latter 18th and early 19th centuries, when they chose to make
Illuminati Masonic Lodges their stamping grounds.

While the Frankists were stand-offish and married among
themselves, the feeling was quite mutual. Since it is known
that the Sabbatians and Frankists indulged in adultery, their
children carried with them the taint of what is referred to in
Jewish Law as being in the category of mamzer or bastardy.



This is based on a verse in Deuteronomy, "a mamzer shall not
come into the congregation of the Lord" (Deut. 23:3) which
prohibits marrying or admitting into the Jewish fold any
progeny of incestuous sexual relations and adultery. 230

Anyone who was a member of a Frankist or Sabbatian
family was shunned by the religious Jewish community. In
those days, many Jewish communities had what is known as a
Seter Yuchsin (records of pedigree, which recorded the status
of people that were converted from other religions into
Judaism), and kept records of illegitimate births, but not
children born of Jewish parents out of wedlock, which
according to Judaism have no taint of illegitimacy whatsoever.

It should be pointed out that the Frankists and their elite
were not monolithic in character. There were people who were
brought up in these circles that rebelled against their
environment and sought to rectify their lives. One such
example is Edmond Rothschild, son of James, who contrary to
the Reform and Frankist teachings, embraced Zionism and
gave huge sums of money for the settlement of Israel and for
maintaining institutions where authentic Torah values were
retained and intensively pursued. It was he who rebelled
against the intrigues of the Flouse of Rothschild, spurned
Abraham Geiger's eulogy of his father, and the teachings of
Marx, Engels and their radical friend Heinrich Fleine (1799-
1856), whose patronage the Bund had assigned to Edmond's
mother Bette. 231

While the Bank of Rothschild was growing by leaps and
bounds, another banking interest, but not as large, was quietly
developing. It was the Mendelssohn bank, run by the brothers
Abraham Mendelssohn (1776-1835) and Joseph (1770-1848),
Moses' son, Abraham Mendelssohn married Daniel Itzig's
granddaughter Leah Salomon. Fie was the father of the
musician Felix. Abraham converted to Christianity in 1822.
Whereas his brother Joseph did not convert, Joseph's son



George Benjamin (1794-1874) did. He, incidentally, was Karl
Marx's professor of geography at Bonn.

The Mendelssohn Bank was active in German and foreign
railway issues and state loans. They were known as
specialists in Russian securities. The Bank persisted after
World War I, and was absorbed after Hitler came to power in
1939 by the Deutsche Bank.

Among Mendelssohn's descendants were Felix Gilbert the
historian, the philosopher Leonard Nelson (1882-1927), and
more recently, Kurt Hensel, a diplomatic attache from West
Germany to Israel, who arrived in 1968.





But the person, be he citizen or stranger, who acts defiantly,
reviles the Lord; that person shall be cut off from among his
people. Because he has spurned the word of the Lord.

(Numbers 15:30-31)

All Israel has a share in the world to come ... and these are
they that have no share in the world to come... . He that says
that the Torah is not from heaven.

(Mishna, Sanhedrin 10:1)

Whom hast thou reproached and blasphemed? And against
whom hast thou raised thy voice and lifted up thine eyes on
high? Even against the Holy One of Israel.

spoken by Isaiah in reply to the
Assyrian emissary, Rawshake. (I Kings 19:22)

Ravshake was a Jewish apostate.

(Sanhedrin 60a)

Jonathan Eibeschutz's first heretical crypto-Sabbatian
Theological Seminary was in Prague. When Rabbi Chagiz
urged a ban on registration of yeshiva students at Eibeschutz's
yeshiva, Chagiz was under the impression that its registrants
were good, God-fearing Jewish young men who aspired to the
independent study of the Torah and Talmudic texts. In reality
they were hand-picked students who had been recommended



to the yeshiva by two faced crypto-Sabbatian religious
instructors who were dedicated and indoctrinated in
Sabbatianism. They spread themselves over the face of
Eastern Europe, posing as legitimate teachers of Judaism, but
earned side income through subsidies of wealthy Sabbatians.
They sought out at all times students whom they could take
into their confidence, who had a flair for Kabbala, and who
were good schemers, extremely brilliant, as well as those
students who were being raised as Sabbatians or crypto-
Sabbatians by their parents. Once having located the right
candidate, they would tutor him privately and secretly in the
mystical teachings of the movement.

The network of Sabbatians was held together by an
elaborate system of communications consisting of couriers
and emissaries whose full time job it was to run messages all
over Eastern Europe. Across this network traveled much
information and secret messages, some of which have been
lying around in archives in Europe. It reached the archives
because, from time to time, various governments who were
monitoring Sabbatian activity in Europe were able to intercept
and confiscate their communications. 232 An interesting letter
confiscated from the Sabbatian prophet Judah Leib Prossnitz
(1690-1730) en route to Jonathan Eibeschutz sheds light on
these activities. 233 Prossnitz is condemned at the beginning of
Rabbi Chagiz's letter urging a ban on Eibeschutz's yeshiva.
Chagiz described Prossnitz as "the abominable Leib of
Prossnitz." Prossnitz prophesied that Jonathan Eibeschutz
would be the Messiah to follow Shabbetai Tzvi. 234

When Eibeschutz's Prague Seminary was in full swing, his
crypto-Sabbatian fledglings were already scheming as to how
they could destroy and discredit the legitimate Rabbinate,
yeshiva system and communal structure of the teeming city of
Prague. The Chief Rabbi of the Prague community at that time
was a most prominent and saintly man, Rabbi David
Oppenheim (1664-1736). Rabbi Oppenheim had his own



yeshiva where students from Jewish communities throughout
Europe would come to engage in advanced Talmudic
studies. 235

Around 1720, Eibeschutz's students, who supposedly were
good yeshiva students, did something very out of character
with the tenor of what the yeshiva world had been and had
exemplified for thousands of years. They vandalized Rabbi
Oppenheim’s yeshiva, assaulted some students, inflicting
severe bodily injury and harm upon these students. They
entered the yeshiva's main study hail where students were
reviewing their daily Talmudic assignments, and they
completely demolished it.

As a result of this incident, Rabbi Oppenheim's students
began to realize the real nature of Eibeschutz's yeshiva. In the
months that followed, Rabbi Oppenheim’s students were
ambushed and periodically beaten by Eibeschutz's thugs who
haunted the alleyways of the city of Prague.

By this time Rabbi Oppenheim's students were engaged in
escalating their retaliation, and although details of how they
fought back have not survived, it is very possible that some of
Eibeschutz's students were systematically killed, because on
June 16, 1772, Charles VI of Austria issued an edict to end the
feud. 236 I mention this background information because it was
from this environment that Carl Anton emerged, a star pupil of
Eibeschutz's yeshiva. After graduation from the Yeshiva,
Anton converted to Christianity. He was a Frankist, and
occupied a chair as professor of Hebrew at Helmstedt. 237

Eibeschutz's disciples had definitive objectives assigned to
them so that they would play certain roles in the revolution.
Carl Anton's assignment was to discredit the Bible. In order to
best accomplish this, no obstacle would stand in his way, such
as his religion. Therefore, Anton officially converted to
Christian so that he could hold an esteemed professorial chair.
Anton's function was so sensitive and scandalous that
painstaking efforts were made to obscure his activities. This is



why reference to his life cannot found in the Encyclopedia
Judaica, nor in the old Jewish Encyclopedia.

To effectuate his plan, Anton devised a game pian to
discredit the Bible in a masterly blueprint that would take about
one century to develop. The plan went into effect as
scheduled. Its essential features were implemented over a
period taking nearly twice as long, for Anton could not
anticipate future setbacks in the Illuminati timetable. Anton's
blueprint was as follows:

1. Develop a closed circle of intellectuals whose main
objective would be to destroy the Bible

2. These intellectuals should be mainly academicians who
should occupy chairs at leading universities, but other
intellectuals would supplement their work.

3. This intellectual group should attempt to put itself into
positions where it could control the dissemination of
information vital to Biblical studies. This means they
should gravitate to positions of authority in scholastic
publications dealing with these fields, including libraries
and archives.

4. All sections of the Illuminati, Frankist and fellow
revolutionaries of future generations must cooperate fully
to promote and enhance the career advancement of the
Biblical Destruction Group (BDG), and should apply
pressure where necessary towards that advancement.

5. BDG must be self-perpetuating. Every member must
produce at least one replacement for himself in his

6. All media at the disposal of revolutionaries must be
rallied to disseminate propaganda issued by any
member of the BDG.

7. People who are not members of the BDG, but who seem
to show an interest in pursuing anti-Bible thought, should
be encouraged without even their knowledge, and



catapulted to important positions. This will strengthen the
BDG at any time in history.

8. As time goes on those who accept the views that are
fostered by the BDG, should be in a position strong
enough to destroy any academicians or intellectuals who

do not conform to their ideas.

Anton then proceeded to work his plan. His plan succeeded
in the following events and is, in fact, still in process today:

— In 1782 Moses Dobrushka, now Schonfeld, was
appointed director of the Vienna Library Archives. 238

— The Jacobin, Zalkind Hourwitz (1740-1812) was
appointed secretary and interpreter of Oriental
languages at the Royal Library, Paris, France in 1789. 239

— Ferdinand Hitzig (1807-1875), a descendant of the Itzig
banking family of Berlin, embarked on a career as a
Biblical scholar. 240

— French physician Jean Astruc (1685-1766) served the
court of Augustus II of Poland in 1789, made an initial
contact with the Sabbatians. In 1753 Astruc's first
Biblical work appeared, one year after Carl Anton wrote
an apology in defense of Rabbi Jonathan Eibeschutz. It
postulated what is known as the first Documentary
Hypothesis, that the Pentateuch was a compilation of
separate documents written centuries apart. 241

— Jena and Gottingen Universities in Germany became
centers of anti-Biblical rhetoric.

Carl Anton did not hesitate to cross religious lines when
Jonathan Eibeschutz was again attacked for heretical
Sabbatianism by Jacob Emden in the 1750's. In 1752 he wrote
a defense for Eibeschutz.

Dr. Moshe Perlmutter, a disciple of Gershom Scholem,
states that when Carl Anton wrote his defense of Eibeschutz,
Eibeschutz supplied him with textual material that he utilized.
In his defense of Jonathan Eibeschutz, Anton virulently
attacked Judaism and the Rabbis, accusing them of applying



the Golden Rule, "Thou Shalt Love Thy Neighbor as Thyself
(Lev. 19:18)" only to Jews and not to Christians as Rabbi
Jonathan Eibeschutz does. 242

To further his deception, Jonathan Eibeschutz meanwhile
was constantly attacking the Sabbatians. When he was Rabbi
in Prague, he went so far as to publicly pronounce a ban of
excommunication against them, and when the yeshiva
violence took place, Eibeschutz "played dumb." He couldn't
understand why good yeshiva students should fight the
students of Rabbi Oppenheim, so the fights continued without
subsiding, until the imperial edict.

Among the more dangerous and famous Biblical critics we
can list Johann David Michaelis (1717-1 791 ). 243 Michaelis was
very active as a writer, a theologian, Orientalist and Biblical
critic. His main publishing activity was that of Editor of the
Biblical exegesis journal of his day. He denigrated Jews. 244
Initially he gave Mendelssohn good reviews, 245 but argued with
him extensively later on. It is possible that his arguments with
Mendelssohn were merely conspiratorial in character, and
were meant to serve as excuses for Mendelssohn to become
famous as a great spokesman for Jewish emancipation,
because while Michaelis made public remarks of an anti-
Semitic nature, Mendelssohn considered Michaelis to be an
ally when it came to Scripture from the aspect of non-dogmatic



An interesting example of where Mendelssohn and
Michaelis locked horns was when Michaelis tried to prove
statistically that Jews were twenty-five times as corrupt as
Germans with respect to thievery. Mendelssohn's reply has
been summarized by Altmann as follows: 247

"If a nation's depravity was to be assessed, he declared, it
was necessary to take into account murderers, highwaymen,
traitors, arsonists, adulterers, harlots, infanticides, etc. — not
thieves alone. But even under the erroneous assumption that
only thieves and dealers in stolen goods were an index of a



nation's depravity, Michaells' statistical method was wrong.
The number of Jews in that category was not to be compared
with general population figures but with non-Jews of the same
description among small traders and second-hand dealers. A
comparison would then show that there were twenty-five times
more German than Jewish offenders of this kind. He added
grimly: 'Besides, the Jew resorts to such a way of life from
sheer necessity, while the non-Jew has a chance to become a
field marshal or cabinet minister and by his free choice
became a small trader, second-hand dealer, mousetrap
vendor, magic lantern, or curiosities huckster'."

Michaelis wrote several volumes of works that were
devoted to Biblical criticism, such as his work entitled The New
Testament, which appeared in 1750.

Michaelis also suggested to the King of Denmark that an
archeological excavation should be carried out in the Near
East. This is one of the earliest references that one can find to
an excavation of this type. It is indeed unfortunate that some of
the great archeological discoveries of the nineteenth century
were interpreted and reported in the media from the standpoint
of disproving the Bible, or undermining it.

After Mendelssohn's death, a certain Judah Ben Ze'ev
(1764-1 81 1) 248 of Jewish birth, moved to Berlin in 1787 and
secured for himself the dubious distinction of "the first Jewish
scholar to apply Western research methods to the study of
Hebrew." Ben Ze'ev's heresies traveled to his native city of
Krak, so that when he returned later on, the Rabbis of the
community forced him to leave, and he later settled in Vienna.

Following on the heels of Johann David Michaelis for
leadership in the field of Biblical criticism came J. G. Eichhorn
(1752-1 827). 249 He presided as Professor of Oriental Studies
at Jena (1775-1787). It is interesting to note that while Karl
Marx studied at Bonn and Berlin, he received his Ph.D. from
the same university. Eichhorn left Jena to join the faculty of
philosophy at Gottingen, which position he held from 1788 until
the time of his death. It is claimed that had an influence on



Moses Mendelssohn. 250 G. Her, who was a colleague of his,
was a known member of the Illuminati.

Following Eichhorn came Wilhelm De Wette (1780-1849).
De Wette's Ph.D. dissertation in 1805 at Jena University was
known as the Discourse on Deuteromy. De Wette's Discourse
was embodied at a later date by another Biblical critic named
Wellhausen. De Wette's main thesis was that the entire Book
Deuteronomy was written around the time of King Josiah. if
this thesis would have had the proper critical exposure that it
deserved in the media, it would have been put down as
absurd. One must remember that the Illuminati and the
Jacobins were seizing anything they could to break the
authority of the Bible, in the same manner as their disciples
seized later on Darwin's Origin of the Species as a means to
undermine the Bible, in spite of the fact that Darwin himself
believed that God created man, which appears to be lost in the
shuffle somewhere, as well as the fact that it is possible to
interpret Scripture even according to Darwin. Science today
has discredited and outdated much of what Darwin wrote.

De Wette overlooks some basic facts that would stare in the
face any one who is intimately familiar with the manner and
tenor of the Hebrew Bible. What is significant here is that the
Biblical account tells that a manuscript of the Torah was found
in Josiah's time in the Temple by Chilkiyahu, the High Priest
(II Kings 22:3). When the Bible tells us it was found, it is most
significant that the Bible does not tell us that it was written by
Chilkiyahu. 251 Scripture tells us furthermore, that it was given
to Shaphan, the Scribe, for reading, who in turn brought it to
the King. This narrative and this fact shed some very important
light on the true function of the royal Priestly Scribe. The
Scribes were guardians of the Torah, and they knew Torah by
heart in all its innuendos, and preserved what is known as the
authentic Massoretic text. It is significant that the Bible on the
spot (Ibid. v. 3) tells us that Shaphan's grandfather was none
other than Meshulam the Scribe. The reason is that this infor-



mation is vital and critical to a proper understanding of the
narrative, and tells us why Shaphan was competent to render
judgment as to the authenticity of the found manuscript.

Preceding Josiah's reign on the throne was the chaotic
period of Menashe, King Josiah's grandfather persecutor of
the faithful, who burned manuscripts of the Torah. 252 Shaphan
came from a scribal dynasty. His grandfather, in turn a Scribe,
is the Hebrew Bible's best example of a chain of tradition from
father to son mitigating against a physical destruction of Torah
manuscripts. Indeed, Biblical critics are hard pressed to
explain the importance of the pedigree of Priestly families and
their scribal functions. For example, Shemaya ben Nethanel
kept records for King David concerning the Priestly families
(I Chron. 24:6), and every king had such records kept
(II Chron. 26:11). Shaphan was not only descendant of a
Priestly family, but his descendants in turn carried on the
tradition. For example, when Josiah's son Yehoyakim ruled
over Judah, Shaphan's son Gemariah served as Scribe. On
one occasion Jeremiah's disciple, Baruch ben Neriah, recited
a prophetic message in

" — the chamber of Gemariah, the son of Shaphan the scribe in
the upper court... . And when Micaiah the son of Gemariah,
the son of Shaphan, had heard the words of the Lord he went
into the king's house, into the scribe's chamber and all the
princes sat there, even Elishama the scribe (Jeremiah 36,
10 : 12 )."

Elishama and his clerks were named after their scribal
ancestors who are explicitly mentioned having lived in the
days of Jehosophat, and they "taught in Judah, having the
book of God's Torah with them (II Chron. 17:9)." This Scribal
dynasty produced none other than Ezra, the Scribe, who
resurrected the Torah in his day, and who himself was
descended from Meshulam, or Shalum in abbreviated Hebrew
(Ezra, 7:2), and was from the stock of Aaron the High Priest. 253



If I had had De Wette as a student in Bible, I would have
flunked him, because his thesis is based on assuming that
Kings II is accurate. If he had taken the narrative of Chapter 22
of Kings II as authentic, then he would certainly have had to
take Chapter 14 Kings II as equally authentic. Chapter 14
records an incident that took place several generations before
Josiah was born, where Amaziah, king of Judah killed the
people who deposed his father from throne but did not kill their
children because

"as it is written in the Torah of Moses, fathers should not be
killed on account of their children, nor children on account of
their fathers, but each shall perish on the account of his own
sin (Kings II, 14.6)."

The verse referred to in Kings II appears in the Torah in the
Book of Deuteronomy where it states:

"Fathers should not be killed on account of their children, or
children on account of the sins of their fathers. Every man
shall be put to death for his own sin (Deut. 24:1 6)."

If, according to De Wette, the Book of Deuteronomy was
composed in the time of Josiah, then how was it possible that
a verse that was referred to from the Book of Deuteronomy ap-
peared generations before Josiah was born? There are also
other analogous verses from the Bible cited from Deuteronomy
that chronologically preceded Josiah's reign (Joshua 8:31;
23:6 and I Kings 2:3).

De Wette joined the faculty of theology in Berlin, but
even they could not tolerate his views, and he was dismissed
in 1819 for "liberal views." 254 Fie was appointed as Professor of
Antiquities and Theology in Basle in 1822, after a short stay in

After De Wette, we find that the nineteenth century Biblical
criticism was finally dominated by Julius Wellhausen (1844-
1918) who was born a Lutheran, and was Professor of Oriental
studies at Halle from 1882 to 1885, and became professor



ordinarius of theology in Griefswold, a position which he
resigned in 1882, and transferred to Gottingen in 1892.
Wellhausen became famous for what was known as the Graf-
Wellhausen Hypothesis, which attributed the authorship of the
Pentateuch to four authors: J, E, D and P. D standing for the
Deuteronomy code. More formally, the Hypothesis became
known as the, Second Documentary Hypothesis, and D the
author of Deuteronomy was an element that was borrowed
from De Witt's thesis. The theory has never been scientifically
proven; on the contrary, it has been discredited many times in
the past by competent Biblical scholars. Despite this, it still
holds on, because radicals and their fellow travelers have
decided that it should be deemed valid. 255

Moritz Steinschneider (1816-1907) was born in the town of
Prossnitz, Moravia, to a Sabbatian family. His father Jacob
(1782-1856) was active in the Prague circle of Sabbatians.
The Sabbatian prophet from that locale, Judah Leib Prossnitz,
had an able disciple in Moritz. Steinschneider attended the
Christian school in his community, as well as the yeshiva, and
was ordained as a rabbi. He was considered to be one of the
pioneers of the so-called Jewish science, which was
advocated by Abraham Geiger. In 1833, Steinschneider
moved to the Sabbatian center of Prague. He engaged in
biblical criticism and spent much time in the field of Jewish
bibliography. His close disciples included Solomon Schechter
and Judah Magnes, whom we will discuss in detail in Volume
II. From Gershom Scholem we learn that Gotthold Weil (one of
Steinschneider's last students), upon visiting the aged
Steinschneider in his library toward the end of his life, which
was devoted for seventy years to researching Jewish
bibliography, literature and culture; Weil who had been freshly
inspired by the Jewish students league, gushed forth before
him the ideas of a Jewish "Renaissance and reconstruction of
Judaism as a living entity, but Steinschneider regarded this as
nonsense. Pointing towards his bookcase, he said; "We have



only one task left, to give the remains of Judaism a decent
burial." 256

Steinschneider was a student activist, and founded a secret
society called Unity, which lasted from 1836 to 1842. The
society supposedly was billed as a Zionist group founded in
Prague that would be active in getting Jews out of Austria to
the Holy Land. However, the Austrian police thought
otherwise. They concluded that Unity was a secret society with
destructive and reformist tendencies, and that Steinschneider
as its founder was a dangerous person. Because of this,
Metternich personally inquired to the Berlin police who
whitewashed the group.

The credibility of Steinschneider as a Zionist seems to be
lost when it is known both from Scholem and others that he
was an anti-Zionist, so much so that he stated that Zionism is
more dangerous than anti-Semitism.

In 1847, Moritz applied as Director for the Israel Jacobson
School, named after its Bundist founder, but he was refused.
However, on March 8, 1848, Steinschneider was found on the
streets of Berlin, building barricades to aid the Communist
revolution of 1848. It is interesting to note that on one
occasion, Steinschneider committed an unforgivable sin for
which the Communist, Reform and Conservative clergy never
forgave him. It was important in carrying out their work that no
trace of certain relationships be left for future generations.
Steinschneider broke security on one occasion, which caused
the breakup of his forty-year friendship with Dr Meyer
Kayserling, who before Altmann's Mendelssohn, was
considered to have written the most comprehensive biography
of Mendelssohn. Kayserling published a biography extolling
Ludwig Philippson (1811-1889), who was founder of the first
Jewish weekly in German, and also author of a German
translation of the Bible. Philippson was a Bund political activist
with Reform sympathies. In a review, Setinschneider sinned by
revealing that Kayserling was Philippson's son-in-law. It should



be noted that Philippson was the prime mover in opening up
Geiger's Berlin Seminary in 1872. 57

Steinschneider perpetuated the tradition of Biblical criticism
started by Anton through his students, such as Schechter. This
was true of all members of the Biblical conspiracy. For
example, Max Lillienthal scouted out Daniel Chwolson (1819-
1911) in Riga when he was there doing the dirty work of the
Bund. 258 Lillienthal sent him to Abraham Geiger because
Chwolson had a good Rabbinical background. Geiger trained
his student well, and initiated him for further work in the field of
Biblical criticism, and like Carl Anton, it was necessary for
Chwolson to fulfill his mission by converting to Christianity so
that he could get a professorship. So in 1855 Chwolson ac-
cepted Greek Orthodoxy, and a university professorship, as
chairman of the department of Oriental studies at the
University of St. Petersburg in Russia. It was there that
Chwolson continued his work in the field of Biblical blasphemy.
However, he started to rebel against the conspiracy, and quit
the Hebrew Enlightenment Society of St. Petersburg (Chever
Mefitze HaHaskala). From that day on, he became a staunch
defender of Rabbinical Judaism, and utilized his university
professorship to defend yeshivot, Talmudic publications, and
the Jews of Russia against blood libels.

An interesting study in contrasts between a committed
Biblical critic who is politically indoctrinated, and one who was
attracted to Jewish studies and adopted the blasphemies of
the Biblical critics because he was logically convinced of their
merit, is provided by studying the lives of Ephraim Speiser
(1902-1965) and Yechezkiel Kaufmann (1889-1963). Ephraim
Speiser was born in Galacia, and came to the United States in
1920. Kaufmann was born in Poland, but instead of settling in
the United States, he was Zionistically inclined, and settled in
Israel in 1928. Speiser was on the Editorial Committee of the
Anchor Bible, and in 1964, he produced the Genesis edition. It
is full of blasphemy like the rest of the Anchor Bible, and



Speiser makes reference to Wellhausian authorship in his
book by putting capital letters in parentheses after Biblical
verses, designating who wrote them. Kaufmann, while
subscribing to Wellhausen's hypothesis, wrote his monumental
work, an eight-volume treatise in Hebrew entitled Toldot
Haemuna Hayisroelit, seven volumes of which were translated
from the Hebrew in 1 960 under the title The Religion of Israel.

Kaufmann is original because, unlike the other critics who
claimed that Judaism and the Bible evolved from paganism, he
takes painstaking care to show that Judaism is not a
development from paganism, but has an entire new beginning
in itself. He writes strictly against Greek secularism, and
stresses the importance of the Jewish religion. But unfor-
tunately, he is still caught in the trappings of Biblical critics,
and points out apparent contradictions in the Torah that any
good Talmudic scholar can easily refute.

Of the Biblical critics mentioned, Speiser, Kaufmann and
Steinschneider were embraced by the Conservative
movement. The Conservative movement's outstanding
spokesman, Solomon Schechter, in order to try to curry favor
with religious Jews, referred to Wellhausen and the German
Biblical critics and their criticisms, not as "higher Biblical
criticism," but as "higher anti-Semitism." Yet he agreed with
the idea that God did not write the Torah.

The documentary hypothesis was successfully refuted by
the following Biblical scholars who wrote classical works:

J. Robertson, The Early Religion of Israel;

James Orr, The Problem of the Old Testament;

W.L. Baxter (1841-1937), Sanctuary and Sacrifice;

H.M. Weiner. (1847-1929), Essays in Pentateuchal Critism;

D. Hoffman (1843-1921), Die Wichtigsten Instanzen gegen
die Wellhausensche Hypothese;

and more recently, Elihu Schatz, Proofs of the Accuracy of
the Bible, Jonathan David (1973).



In addition to those books of the great Orientalists,
A. H. Sayce (1845-1933) lectured widely against the entire
concept of the hypothesis. Nevertheless, as was pointed out
before, faculties throughout the world who deal with Biblical
literature and Oriental studies, have chosen to ignore the
works of these people, and so the accumulated blasphemies
as to the integrity of the Hebrew Bible persist.




In this Volume, we have shown how a conspiracy
developed to undermine Judaism, and how it engulfed an
entire continent, and spread throughout the Western World. It
has been noted that the modern period did not spontaneously
begin. A famous academic anecdote tells the story of a stu-
dent who raised his hand to ask his professor when the
Renaissance began. The professor explained that on
December 31, 1399, a party was held in Italy, and they
proclaimed that at midnight the Renaissance would begin. One
cannot precisely put one's finger on the time nor the place
when a conspiracy began to undermine all the religions of the
world, and Judaism in particular. One can point to specific
events that took place, so that Communism was not born
when Adam Weishaupt founded the Illuminati on May Day
1776. Certain changes were already in evidence when
Mendelssohn came on the scene in the Jewish communities of
Europe. In the time of Shabbetai Tzvi, the false Messiah, the
Jewish community of the world acted as one body. By the time
Moses Mendelssohn came on the scene, polarization had
begun to appear. The Frankists and Bund members
contributed to the further polarization of the Jewish people,
which is going on up to this very day. Only the State of Israel
has acted as a unifying force.

When the Rabbis prophetically saw the Flolocaust in
Mendelssohn's Berlin circle, they were also looking at one
essential consequence of this, that the alienation that
Mendelssohn began would eventually result not only in the
desecration of Judaism, but would destroy the eventual hope
of Israel returning to its Flomeland. Indeed, the Prophets of
Israel declared long ago that a holocaust would come to those
Jews who did not return to their homeland, when they had the



opportunity to do so. Thus did God warn Israel that a slaughter
would befall those who forsook Zion (Isaiah 65:11, 12), while
those who would return and inhabit Zion would be spared
(Ibid, v. 15, 16).

Implicit to the development of Frankist revolutionaries and
the Bund philosophy was a hatred for Zionism. A return to
Israel by a pure Zionism that is based on basic Jewish
religious concepts further developed, and appeared to be
successful. At this point the conspirators undermined Judaism
by attempting to radicalize Zionism. Unfortunately, the radical
side of Zionism has won out in terms of the Socialist Histadrut
Party that has dominated the State of Israel to this very day. A
conspiracy thus exists and is perpetuated where a group of
wealthy NeoPlatonists attempt to dominate Israel with huge
sums of money, and try to maintain their control over its future.
They have succeeded in stabilizing the development of the
State so that Israel would be perpetually dependent on them
for its economic growth. There is no reason why Israel's
present 30 billion Israeli lira ($8 billion) economy is not 100
billion. Israeli bureaucracy, spawned by Socialism, has given
birth to a disgraceful, stultifying status quo that permeates the
government, manifested by a sachevet, "red tape," which saps
the very lifeblood of the State.

Our description of the Illuminati is based on John Robison's
Proofs of a Conspiracy. The question, of course, should be
asked, "How reliable was Robison?" Robison was a great
scientist. He was Professor of Chemistry on the faculty of
Edinburgh University in Scotland. What is even more
impressive is that George Washington acknowledged the
threat of the Illuminati, and in a letter dated September 25,
1 798, 259 he wrote the following to a Reverend G. W.Snyder:



Mount Vernon, September 25, 1798

"Sir: Many apologies are due to you, for my not acknowledging
the receipt of your obliging favour of the 22d, and for not
thanking you, at an earlier period, for the book you had the
goodness to send me.

"I have heard much of the nefarious and dangerous plan and
doctrines of the Illuminati, but never saw the book until you
were pleased to send it to me. The same causes which have
prevented my acknowledging the receipt of your letter have
prevented me my reading the book, hitherto; namely, the
multiplicity of matters which pressed upon me before, and the
debilitated state in which I was left after a severe fever had
been removed. And which allows me to add little more now,
than thanks for your kind wishes and favourable sentiments,
except to correct an error you have run into, of my presiding
over the English lodges in this country. The fact is, I preside
over none, nor have I been in one more than once or twice,
within the last thirty years. I believe notwithstanding, that none
of the Lodges in this Country are contaminated with the
principles ascribed to the Society of the Illuminati. With respect
I am &c ...

George Washington."

Just as Washington realized that there was a conspiracy to
undermine the United States in his day, so too, a similar
conspiracy is being carried out in the State of Israel in the
aftermath of the Yom Kippur War. The same radical clique that
gave the world Socialism and Communism want to see the
Jewish religion and its people destroyed. In their ranks are
those of Jewish origin.

They did everything they could before the State of Israel
was established to try to prevent it from becoming a reality, but
once it became a reality, they sought to control it. As for
example, at the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War, the Histadrut
Secretary General Ben Aharon, an avowed Marxist, controlled



the affairs of Israel's majority party. He was advised to resign
thereafter because of his extreme Marxist views, which people
thought were not in the best interests of the State of Israel. He
has been succeeded by Secretary General Meschel, who is
not a militant Marxist.

Future chapters of the next volume, God willing, will trace
the beginnings of the Zionist movement in opposition to the
Frankist elite, and will also discuss how the Conservative
movement began. We shall discuss the early beginnings of
Nazism as a Socialist Party in 1893, called the Anti-Semitic
Party, as well as certain aspects of the Holocaust. We shall
also show how certain Jews in the Civil Rights movement and
the Reform and Conservative movements in the United States
plotted with Black radicals to destroy manifestations of Jewish
life in the United States from 1964 to the present time, with
particular attention to Boston, where I witnessed the forced
exile of 60,000 Jews because of assaults, robberies, rapes,
and the murder of over 250 Jews from 1 968 to 1 973.

It goes without saying that one cannot be a Jew and a
Communist, for in accepting the tenets of the accursed Karl
Marx, one turns his back not only on the Torah, but on the
universal morality of Judaism preached by the Noahidic laws,
for a Jew certainly cannot become a Christian and still be a
Jew. One who does is called a meshumad, a renegade from
his faith. If he became a Christian, he can certainly be a civi-
lized human being. However, if one turns his back on basic
morality, then one is a barbarian, and is no longer a civilized
human being. Being a civilized human being is a prerequisite
to being a Jew, and it goes without saying that a barbarian
cannot be a Rabbi. Therefore, we shall devote a section to
discuss how real Rabbis fought back the scourge of anti-
nomian nihilistic Socialism and Communism, and fought
barbarians who masqueraded as rabbis.





AM Alexander Altmann, Moses Mendelssohn: A Biographical Study.

University of Alabama Press, (1973).

CAE Robert K. Spenser, The Cult of The All-Seeing Eye, Omni, Hawthorne CA.

CE Catholic Encyclopedia.

DIM Max I. Dimont, Jews, God, and History, Signet, (1962).

EB Encyclopedia Britannica, 1941 ed.

Ei Encyclopedia Judaica, Keter Jerusalem, (1972).

IE Jewish Encyclopedia, Funk and IPagnell.t, (1906).

JEYS Moshe Arie Permutter, Rebbe Yehonatan Eibeschutz V'yechuso ci
Hashabtaut (Rabbi Jonathan Eibeschutz and His Attitude Towards
Sabbatianism), Schocken, Jerusalem (1947).

JFM Jacob Katz, Jews and Freemasons in Europe 1 723-1 939, Harvard (1 970).
MIJ Gershom Scholem, The Messianic idea in Judaism, Schoken, New York


M&M Margolis & Marx, A History of The Jewish People, JPSA (1947).

OC Stephen -Birmingham. Our Crowd, Harper & Row, New York (1 947).

OY Judah David Eisenstein, Otzar Yisroel, Hebrew Publishing, New York

(1917). An encyclopedia written in Hebrew, of the Scope of the Jewish

PC A. M. Robison, Proofs of a Conspiracy Against All The Religions and

Governments of Europe Carried On In Secret Meetings of Free Masons,
illuminati and Reading Societies. George Forman, New York (1798).
Reissue by Western Islands, Boston (1967).

PRM David Philippson, The Reform Movement in Judaism, Reissue of 1907
Edition Ktav, New York (1 967).

SM Rabbi Judah L. Maimon, Sarei Hameah, Achiasef Jerusalem (1965).

TTH Rabbi Joseph I. Schneersohn, The Tzema Ttedek and The Haskala

Movement, translated (from Hebew) by Zaiman I. Posdner. Kehot.
Brooklyn (1962).

WG Max Weiner, Abraham Geiger and Liberal Judaism, Jewish Publication

Society of America (1 962).






1. JE, Karl Marx.

2. ER, Illuminati.

3. Glenn W. Skousen, The Naked Capitalist (1971), pp. 27, 38.

4. PC, p. 101.

5. Review of the News, Nov. 29, 1 972, p. 60.

6. Maimonides, Mishna Torah, Laws of Kings. 9:1 .

7. Carroll Quigley, Tragedy and Hope, McMillan, New York (1966), p. 950. See
also Skousen, Lot. Cit., p. 5.

8. Skousen. Ibid, p. 41 cites N.Y. Journal American for Feb. 3, 1949, for
320,000,000 Schiff Gift.

9. JE, Abraham Geiger.

10. DJH, p. 369.

11. This event took place in 1864, but Geiger went through a period of alienation
with the Bund, discussed later. See OC. p. 156.

12. "Der Judische Nigger", Marx 3,82 (July 30, 1862).

13. Solomon Schechter, Studies in Judaism, Chapter 1 .

14. From an address by Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik at Trienniel Ordination
Ceremony, Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary of Yeshiva University,
March 1956.

15. JE, Reform.

16. OC. p. 156.

17. TTH, p. 12.

18. TTH, p. 91 Note 70.

19. TTH, p. 13.

20. TTH, p. 30.

21. TTH, p. 18.

22. TTH, p. 22.

23. TTH, p. 18.

24. TTH, pp. 24.26.

25. Sol M. Ginsburg, Historische Verk, III, New York (1937), pp. 62-63.

26. TTH, p. 44; Archives Ministry of Culture, U.S.S.R. Document #80575/K 3697.

27. TTH, p. 45, based on Jewish Law, e.g., Responsa Radbaz 344, Maimonides,
Mishna Torah, Laws of Torah Fundamentals 5:3; Yoreh Deah, Chapter 157.

28. TTH, p. 45.

29. Lucy S. Davidowitz, The Golden Tradition, Beacon, Boston (1967), p. 31.

30. TTH, p. 51 .

31. WG. p. 302 n. 14.



32. Babylonian Talmud, Mishna, Avot 4:1 5.

33. Numbers, 15:30.31 ; Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 99a.

34. WG, p. 6.

35. JR. Berthold Auerbach.

36. WG, p. 22.

37. WG, p. 17.

38. Joelsohn Collection of Frankfurt Jewish Community letters and manuscripts.
Joelsohn's Guest Flouse, 13 Basing Hill Road, Golders Green, England.

39. WG, pp. 26.27.

40. WG. p. 47; PRM, p. 32.

41. Davidowicz, Ibid, p. 148.

42. Davidowirz, Ibid, PP. 148-153.

43. WG, p. 44.

44. WG, p. 46; JE; EJ, Lisa Morgenstern.

45. WG, p. 56.

46. EB, Rothschild.

47. WG, pp. 257-261 .

48. WG, p. 66.

49. Quigley. Ibid.

50. The Cult of the All Seeing Eye, Omni, Hawthorne, CA (1968).

51. CAE, p. 37.

52. CAE, pp. 43-46; Edith Kermit Roosevelt, "The New Cult in Washington," New
Hampshire Sunday News, Sunday. April 1. 1962; Ibid, Oct. 21, 1962.

53. CAR, p. 25: Annuit Coeptis from Aeneid IX, 625; Novus etc. from 4th Eclogue
5th verse.

54. CAE, pp. 51,55, 56.

55. El, Felix Adler. Adler's father was a Reform "rabbi" (Samuel Adler 1809.1891)
who came to America in 1857 but sent his son overseas to study under

56. DIM, p. 370.

57. JE: EJ; OY, Solomon Schechter.



1. As mentioned in several of his works, specific quotations of which with volume
and page number, we will qualify later.

2. See publisher's introduction to the Pise of the House of Rothschild by Count
Egan Caesar Corti, Western Islands re-issue, Belmont, Mass. (1972).

3. ER, Knigge; German Literature.

4. Nicholai is spelled with a 'ch' by Robison, but is found in most texts as

5. PC, p. 60.

6. PC, p. 61.

7. PC, p. 76.

8. PC, p. 62.



9. PC, p. 79.

10. PC, p. 80.

11. PC, p. 87.

12. PC, p. 94.

13. PC, p. 95.

14. PC, p. 150.

15. PC, p. 182.

16. PC, p. 213.

17. PC, pp. 215-216.

18. PC, pp. 217-.218.

19. PC, p. 218.

20. PC, p. 235.

21. PC, p.239.

22. PC, p. 297.

23. Arthur Hertzberg, The French Enlightenment and the Jews, Columbia Union
Press, New York (1 968), p. 294.

24. On Mirabeau's views, see Plertzborg, Ibid, pp. 263, 299, 334, 338, 339, 356,

25. Maurice Schwartz of the Yiddish Theater and his presentation of "The Family
Karnovsky" on the Jewish stage (1948). At the Orpheum Theater, Second
Ave., NYC.

26. Rufus Learsi, History of the Jews in America, World (1956), p. 42.

27. Simon Noveck. Great Jewish Personalities in Modern Times, B'nai Brith
(1960), p. 9.

28. DIH. p. 297.

29. Noveck, Ibid, Alfred Jospe, Moses Mendelssohn, p. 26.

30. Corti, Ibid, Publisher's Introduction vii.

31. OY, "Moses Mendelssohn", p. 236; Eli. Knigge.

32. EJ, "Christoph Friedrich Nicoli".

33. FI. Samuels, Moses Mendelssohn, Jerusalem, London (1838), two volumes.

34. OY, "Moses Mendelssohn", p. 236; Eli, Moses Mendelssohn.

35. PC, p. 173.

36. JE, "Zalkind Ruurwitz".

37. "Flertzberg", Ibid, p. 298.

38. ER, "German Literature".

39. PRM, p. 8.

40. Peretz Smolensken, Et Lataot (It is Time to Plant); OY, Ibid, p. 37. See also
Arthur Flertzberg, The Zionist Idea, IPSA (I960), pp. 145-147, for a brief
synopsis of the essay. Noveck, Ibid, p. 34.

41. Mishna, Kritut 1 :1 , Maimonides, Laws of Repentance, Chapter 5.

42. Maimonides, Laws of Kings, Chapter 9.

43. Smolensken, Part 4, XII.

44. Davidowicz, Ibid, pp. 195-196.

45. Alexander Altmann, Moses Mendelssohn: A Biographical Study, University of
Alabama Press (1973).

46. AM, p. 762. The entire Marburg File has been published under this title by
Professor Altmann in conjunction with Werner Vogel, Neuerschlossene Brief e
Moses Mendelssohns an Friedrich Nicolai, Stuttgart (1973).

47. AM, p. 1 1 2 and p. 780, note 79.



48. OC. p. 365; Gary Allen, None Dare Call It Conspiracy, Concord Press (1972),
p. 52.

49. AM, p. 780, note 80.

50. AM, p. 65.

51. AM. p. 66.

52. AM, pp. 79, 99.

53. AM, p. 199.

54. AM, pp. 310-311.

55. Shulchon Orech, Yoreh Deah, 334:2, 43. See also Moed Katan, 16a, Midrash
Tanchuma Bishalach 16.

56. AM, p. 456 and p. 831 notes 41 and 42.

57 NYC 1966. English counterpart published as Of Expression in Jewish History
(Sepher Censorship and Freedom, Herman, NY 1977) pp 106-12.

58. OY, "Moses Mendelssohn”, p. 237; Noveck, Ibid, p. 33.

59. AM, p. 98; EJ, 11, pp. 1325-1326.

60. AM, p. 98.

61. M I J. pp. 325-334.

62. Sotah, 9b.

63. Jewish Observer, October 1 973.

64. MIJ. p. 141; Commentary, January 1971, p. 70.

65. Megilla 2b.

66. S. R. Hirsch, The Pentateueh, Vol. II Exodus, Judaica Press, New York (1971)
2nd Edition, pp. 509-511.

67. JE, "MarZutra".

68. EB, "Society of Jesus”.

69. Information concerning Shabbetai is based on information from M&M; DJH:
Dreamers of the Ghetto by Israel Zangwill; OY, Shabbetai Tzvi; JE. as well as
Scholem's writings, and especially his book Shabbetai Tzvi.

70. Commentary, January 1971.

71. MIJ, p. 90.

72. MIJ, p. 96.

73. MIJ, p. 126.

74. MIJ, p. 130.

75. MIJ, p. 130.

76. MIJ. p. 137.

77. Gershom Scholem, On the Kabbalah and its Symbolism, Schocken Books,
(1965), pp. 28-29.

78. Gershom Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, Schocken Books,
(1954) pp. 316-317.

79. MIJ, p. 113.

80. Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, p. 317.

81. Scholem, Ibid, p. 318.

82. Scholem, Ibid, pp. 319.320.

83. Scholem, Ibid, p. 304.

84. JE, "Jacob Frank".

85. OY, "Frankists", p. 282.

86. MIJ, pp. 82.83.

87. MIJ, p. 346 note 2.

88. OY, "Frankists", p. 293.



89. M. Samuebs, Ibid, Vol. 1, p. 257.

90. Hertzberg, Ibid, pp. 209.21 0.

91 . EJ. "Jacob Frank and the Frankists", pp. 55.67.

92. EJ. "Dobroshka (Dobruschka)"

93. EJ, Ibid, pp. 63, 67.

94. JE, "Jacob Frank".

95. EJ, Ibid, p. 60.

96. CAE, pp. 45.46.

97. Commentary, January 1 971 , p. 42.

98. Ibid.

99. Gershom Scholem, Leket Margoliot, Schoken, Jerusalem (1941).

100. Samuels, Ibid, pp. 261-268.

101. Samuels, Ibid, p. 266.

102. EJ, "Dobruschka"

103. JE, "Moses Dobrushka".

104. EJ, Ibid.

105. Stanley Loomis, Paris in the Terror, Avon (1964), p. 309; EJ, "Dobruschka";
JE. "Moses Dobrushka".

106. EJ, Ibid, 3111. p. 137.

107. PC, p. 116.

108. EJ, "Francois Chabot"; Loomis, Ibid, pp. 141-145, 309-310, 340.

109. DJH, p.278.

110. MIJ, p. 138.

111. MIJ, p. 138.

112. Scholem, Commentary, Ibid, pp. 68-69; MIJ, pp. 138-140.

113. MIJ, p. 140; Commentary, Ibid, p. 69.

114. See note 113.

115. M&M, p. 609.

116. Hertzberg, Ibid, p. 335.

1 17. Zaikind Hourwitz, Apologie, pp. 66.-67.

118. Flertzberg, Ibid, p. 335.

119. Hertzherg, Ibid, p. 163.

120. Flertzberg, Ibid, p. 135 (continuation of footnote 174.)

1 21 . Voltaire's Correspondence, pp. 1 46. 1 47.

122. For the complete list of Voltaire's anti-Semitic remarks, the reader is referred
to p. 420 of the index of Arthur Flertzberg's French Enlightenment and the

123. Flertzberg, Ibid, p. 356.

124. Ibid, p. 366.

125. Ibid.

126. Ibid, p. 367.

127. Ibid.

128. Byrne, Anti-Semites in Modem France, pp. 77, 115-118; quoted from footnote
70, p. 367 of Flertzberg, Ibid.

129. Flertzberg, Ibid, p. 367 footnote.

130. EJ, "Israel Jacobson".

131. EJ, "Dobruschka".

132. EJ, "Popper".

133. EJ, "Dobruschka".



134. EJ, "Hoenigsberg Family".

135. Ml J, pp. 140, 167.174; Scholem, MajorTrends in Jewish Mysticism, p. 304.

136. EJ, "Jonathan Eibeschutz".

137. Scholem, Leket Magazine, p. 13.

138. MIJ, p. 168.

139. MIJ. p. 169.

140. Learsi, Ibid, p. 248; The Kidnapped and the Ransomed, JPSA (1970).
Introductory Section by Maxwell Whitemao, p. 88.

141. Scholem lists Dembitz's demise as 1900 (MU, p. 357. note 2).

142. Learsi, ibid, p. 248.

143. MIJ, p. 355 note 3.

144. Rabbi Jacob Emden, Flirabbekut, Lvov (1877), p. 45b; MIJ. p. 357.

145. JFM. pp. 26-53.

146. JFM, p. 32.

147. JFM, p. 238, note 30.

148. AM, p.352.

149. JFM, p. 47.

150. JFM, p. 37.

151. JFM, p.238.

152. M&M, p. 632.

153. M&M. p.633.

154. M&M, p. 619.

155. JFM, p. 54.

156. M&M, p. 246; EB 13:299.

157. Baron. A Social and Religious FHistory of the Jews II, 182, 196, 213, 399; VI,

158. YE, "Mar Zutra". There are two completed Talmuds, the Babylonian and the

159. EJ, "Itzig".

160. OC, pp. 117, 124.

161. OC, p. 149.

162. EJ, "Goldmark".

163. EJ, 16, p. 461: AM, p. 189.

164. JEYS, p. 45.

165. AM, pp. 453.454.

166. AM, p. 477.

167. EJ, "Samson Wertheimer".

168. OY, "Hitbolilut".

169. EJ, "Eskeles".

170. M&M, pp. 597-598.

171. EJ, 6, p.894.

172. CE. (1913 ed.). VII, p. 661.

173. EJ, 3. pp. 489-490.

174. JFM, pp. 53, 56.

175. JFM. p. 35; Scholem, Ein Verchollen Nystiker, p. 262.

176. EJ, "Ephraim Flirschfield".

177. AM, p.352.

178. JFM, p. 48.

179. JFM, p. 49.



180. JFM, p. 28.

181. JFM, p. 67.

182. JFM. p. 68.

183. JFM. p. 24.

184. EJ, "Dobruschka".

185. JEYS, Section V, 2.

186. JEYS, Chapters I & II.

187. Albert C. Mackey, Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, New York (1900), p. 80.

188. CAE. p. 18.

189. CE, (1913 ed.) VII, p. 661.

191. JFM, p. 55.

192. JFM, p. 56.

193. JFM, pp. 58-59.

194. JFM, p. 58.

195. JFM, p. 93.

196. JFM, p. 60.

197. JFM, p. 61.

198. Samuels, Ibid.

199. JFM, p. 61.

200 EJ, Michael Fless.

201. JFM, p. 91.

202. Isidor Kracauer, Geschichte der Juden in Frankfurt, Frankfurt (1927) II, 355-

203. WG, pp. 260-261.

204. WG, p. 261 .

205 M&M, p. 617.

206. EJ, "Israel Jacobson".

207. Ibid.

208. Ibid, p. 1240.

209. Instrumental music is prohibited on Sabbaths and FHoly Days according to
Jewish law so that observant Jews do not play an instrument on these days.
Instrumental music could be played only in the FHoly Temple in Jerusalem on
those days. Since the destruction of the Temple, the Rabbis prohibited
musical instruments to accompany prayer services which would ordinarily be
permitted on weekdays; as a sign of mourning for the Temple.

21 0. PRM, pp. 1 3, 227, 390, 433.

211. SM, I, p. 21.

212. News Release, Rabbinical Alliance of America 156 Fifth Ave., NYC,
(March, 1973).

213. EJ, "Aaron Chorin".

214. See note 83.

215. SM I, p. 287.

216. JE, IV, p. 43.

217. MIJ.p. 170.

218. EJ, "Frankists".

219. MIJ.p. 145.

220. MIJ.p. 160.

221. MIJ, p. 159.

222. EJ, "Frankists”, p. 71.



223. EB, "Adam Mickiewicz", p. 426.

224. Volume 6, p. 1 160.

225. Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia (1962).

226. M&M, p. 622.

227. JE, "Jonathan Eibeschutz".

228. Volume III, pp. 224-225.

229. CE, (1913 ed.) Vol. 7, p. 661.

230. Mishma, Yebamot, 4:13.

231. EJ, "Rothschilds".

232. For example, Permutter's JEYS uses some of this material.

233. EJ. 13, p. 1241.

234. Rabbi Jacob Emden, Bet Yonotan Plasofer, Aftona (1762) ; also his Shevirat
Luchot Plaeven, Zocken (1755).

235. EJ, 12, p. 1421.

236. Ibid.

237. M&M.

238. JE, "Moses Dobrushka".

239. JE, "Zalkind Hourwitz"; EJ, 8, p. 1047.

240. JE, Itzig.

241. EJ, 3, p. 809.

242. Carl Anton, Kurze Nachricht von dem Falschen Messias, Sabbathai Zebi,
Wolfenbuttel (1752). See also JEYS, p. 167.

243. EJ, "J.D. Michaelis".

244. AM, p. 24.

245. AM. p. 241.

246. AM, p. 244.

247. AM, 467.

248. EJ, 4. p. 573.

249. EJ, 6,p. 517.

250. Ibid.

251. Eisenstein, J. D. Commentary on the Torah, p. 315.

252. Sanhedrin, 103b.

253. For a comprehensive explanation of the Priestly class, see Jacob Lever's
Prakim B’toldot Plakehuna V'ha Leviya, Magnes Press, Jerusalem (1968),
which deals with Priestly and Levitical families listed in Books of Chronicles,
Ezra and Nehemiah.

254. EJ, DeWette. Wilhelm.

255. For a complete, up-to-date refutation of Graf-Wellhausen, see The Proofs of
the Accuracy of the Bible by E. Schatz, Jonathan David (1973).

256. MIJ, p. 307. For a comprehensive description of Steinschneider's life the
reader is referred to Essays on Jewish Biography by Alexander Marx, Jewish
Publication Society of America (1947).

257. Alexander Marx, Essays on Jewish Biography, pp. 1 13,123,131 ,174.

258. The Golden Tradition, p. 335.

259. Writings of Washington (September 1798), p. 452.



?' £L

1 ( MUM

1 UP




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